CFRG R. L. Barnes
InternetDraft Cisco
Intended status: Informational C. Patton
Expires: 25 February 2023 Cloudflare
P. Schoppmann
Google
24 August 2022
Verifiable Distributed Aggregation Functions
draftirtfcfrgvdaf03
Abstract
This document describes Verifiable Distributed Aggregation Functions
(VDAFs), a family of multiparty protocols for computing aggregate
statistics over user measurements. These protocols are designed to
ensure that, as long as at least one aggregation server executes the
protocol honestly, individual measurements are never seen by any
server in the clear. At the same time, VDAFs allow the servers to
detect if a malicious or misconfigured client submitted an input that
would result in an incorrect aggregate result.
Discussion Venues
This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.
Discussion of this document takes place on the Crypto Forum Research
Group mailing list (cfrg@ietf.org), which is archived at
https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/search/?email_list=cfrg.
Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
https://github.com/cjpatton/vdaf.
Status of This Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Definition of DAFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. Sharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2. Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3. Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4. Unsharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.5. Execution of a DAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5. Definition of VDAFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1. Sharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2. Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3. Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4. Unsharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5. Execution of a VDAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6. Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.1. Finite Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.1.1. Auxiliary Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.1.2. FFTFriendly Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.1.3. Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.2. Pseudorandom Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2.1. PrgAes128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7. Prio3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.1. Fully Linear Proof (FLP) Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1.1. Encoding the Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.2. Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2.1. Sharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2.2. Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.2.3. Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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7.2.4. Unsharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.2.5. Auxiliary Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.3. A GeneralPurpose FLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.3.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.3.2. Validity Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.3.3. Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.4. Instantiations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.4.1. Prio3Aes128Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.4.2. Prio3Aes128Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.4.3. Prio3Aes128Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
8. Poplar1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.1. Incremental Distributed Point Functions (IDPFs) . . . . . 58
8.2. Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.2.1. Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.2.2. Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
8.2.3. Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8.2.4. Unsharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8.2.5. Auxiliary Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
8.3. The IDPF scheme of BBCGGI21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
8.3.1. Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.3.2. Key Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.3.3. Auxiliary Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.4. Poplar1Aes128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Test Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Prio3Aes128Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Prio3Aes128Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Prio3Aes128Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Poplar1Aes128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Sharding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Preparation, Aggregation, and Unsharding . . . . . . . . . . 80
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
1. Introduction
The ubiquity of the Internet makes it an ideal platform for
measurement of largescale phenomena, whether public health trends or
the behavior of computer systems at scale. There is substantial
overlap, however, between information that is valuable to measure and
information that users consider private.
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For example, consider an application that provides health information
to users. The operator of an application might want to know which
parts of their application are used most often, as a way to guide
future development of the application. Specific users' patterns of
usage, though, could reveal sensitive things about them, such as
which users are researching a given health condition.
In many situations, the measurement collector is only interested in
aggregate statistics, e.g., which portions of an application are most
used or what fraction of people have experienced a given disease.
Thus systems that provide aggregate statistics while protecting
individual measurements can deliver the value of the measurements
while protecting users' privacy.
Most prior approaches to this problem fall under the rubric of
"differential privacy (DP)" [Dwo06]. Roughly speaking, a data
aggregation system that is differentially private ensures that the
degree to which any individual measurement influences the value of
the aggregate result can be precisely controlled. For example, in
systems like RAPPOR [EPK14], each user samples noise from a well
known distribution and adds it to their input before submitting to
the aggregation server. The aggregation server then adds up the
noisy inputs, and because it knows the distribution from whence the
noise was sampled, it can estimate the true sum with reasonable
precision.
Differentially private systems like RAPPOR are easy to deploy and
provide a useful guarantee. On its own, however, DP falls short of
the strongest privacy property one could hope for. Specifically,
depending on the "amount" of noise a client adds to its input, it may
be possible for a curious aggregator to make a reasonable guess of
the input's true value. Indeed, the more noise the clients add, the
less reliable will be the server's estimate of the output. Thus
systems employing DP techniques alone must strike a delicate balance
between privacy and utility.
The ideal goal for a privacypreserving measurement system is that of
secure multiparty computation (MPC): No participant in the protocol
should learn anything about an individual input beyond what it can
deduce from the aggregate. In this document, we describe Verifiable
Distributed Aggregation Functions (VDAFs) as a general class of
protocols that achieve this goal.
VDAF schemes achieve their privacy goal by distributing the
computation of the aggregate among a number of noncolluding
aggregation servers. As long as a subset of the servers executes the
protocol honestly, VDAFs guarantee that no input is ever accessible
to any party besides the client that submitted it. At the same time,
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VDAFs are "verifiable" in the sense that malformed inputs that would
otherwise garble the output of the computation can be detected and
removed from the set of input measurements.
In addition to these MPCstyle security goals, VDAFs can be composed
with various mechanisms for differential privacy, thereby providing
the added assurance that the aggregate result itself does not leak
too much information about any one measurement.
TODO(issue #94) Provide guidance for local and central DP and
point to it here.
The cost of achieving these security properties is the need for
multiple servers to participate in the protocol, and the need to
ensure they do not collude to undermine the VDAF's privacy
guarantees. Recent implementation experience has shown that
practical challenges of coordinating multiple servers can be
overcome. The Prio system [CGB17] (essentially a VDAF) has been
deployed in systems supporting hundreds of millions of users: The
Mozilla Origin Telemetry project [OriginTelemetry] and the Exposure
Notification Private Analytics collaboration among the Internet
Security Research Group (ISRG), Google, Apple, and others [ENPA].
The VDAF abstraction laid out in Section 5 represents a class of
multiparty protocols for privacypreserving measurement proposed in
the literature. These protocols vary in their operational and
security considerations, sometimes in subtle but consequential ways.
This document therefore has two important goals:
1. Providing higherlevel protocols like [DAP] with a simple,
uniform interface for accessing privacypreserving measurement
schemes, and documenting relevant operational and security bounds
for that interface:
1. General patterns of communications among the various actors
involved in the system (clients, aggregation servers, and the
collector of the aggregate result);
2. Capabilities of a malicious coalition of servers attempting
to divulge information about client measurements; and
3. Conditions that are necessary to ensure that malicious
clients cannot corrupt the computation.
2. Providing cryptographers with design criteria that provide a
clear deployment roadmap for new constructions.
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This document also specifies two concrete VDAF schemes, each based on
a protocol from the literature.
* The aforementioned Prio system [CGB17] allows for the privacy
preserving computation of a variety aggregate statistics. The
basic idea underlying Prio is fairly simple:
1. Each client shards its measurement into a sequence of additive
shares and distributes the shares among the aggregation
servers.
2. Next, each server adds up its shares locally, resulting in an
additive share of the aggregate.
3. Finally, the aggregation servers send their aggregate shares
to the data collector, who combines them to obtain the
aggregate result.
The difficult part of this system is ensuring that the servers
hold shares of a valid input, e.g., the input is an integer in a
specific range. Thus Prio specifies a multiparty protocol for
accomplishing this task.
In Section 7 we describe Prio3, a VDAF that follows the same
overall framework as the original Prio protocol, but incorporates
techniques introduced in [BBCGGI19] that result in significant
performance gains.
* More recently, Boneh et al. [BBCGGI21] described a protocol
called Poplar for solving the theavyhitters problem in a
privacypreserving manner. Here each client holds a bitstring of
length n, and the goal of the aggregation servers is to compute
the set of inputs that occur at least t times. The core primitive
used in their protocol is a specialized Distributed Point Function
(DPF) [GI14] that allows the servers to "query" their DPF shares
on any bitstring of length shorter than or equal to n. As a
result of this query, each of the servers has an additive share of
a bit indicating whether the string is a prefix of the client's
input. The protocol also specifies a multiparty computation for
verifying that at most one string among a set of candidates is a
prefix of the client's input.
In Section 8 we describe a VDAF called Poplar1 that implements
this functionality.
Finally, perhaps the most complex aspect of schemes like Prio3 and
Poplar1 is the process by which the clientgenerated measurements are
prepared for aggregation. Because these constructions are based on
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secret sharing, the servers will be required to exchange some amount
of information in order to verify the measurement is valid and can be
aggregated. Depending on the construction, this process may require
multiple round trips over the network.
There are applications in which this verification step may not be
necessary, e.g., when the client's software is run a trusted
execution environment. To support these applications, this document
also defines Distributed Aggregation Functions (DAFs) as a simpler
class of protocols that aim to provide the same privacy guarantee as
VDAFs but fall short of being verifiable.
OPEN ISSUE Decide if we should give one or two example DAFs.
There are natural variants of Prio3 and Poplar1 that might be
worth describing.
The remainder of this document is organized as follows: Section 3
gives a brief overview of DAFs and VDAFs; Section 4 defines the
syntax for DAFs; Section 5 defines the syntax for VDAFs; Section 6
defines various functionalities that are common to our constructions;
Section 7 describes the Prio3 construction; Section 8 describes the
Poplar1 construction; and Section 9 enumerates the security
considerations for VDAFs.
1.1. Change Log
(*) Indicates a change that breaks wire compatibility with the
previous draft.
03:
* Define codepoints for (V)DAFs and use them for domain separation
in Prio3 and Poplar1. (*)
* Prio3: Align joint randomness computation with revised paper
[BBCGGI19]. This change mitigates an attack on robustness. (*)
* Prio3: Remove an intermediate PRG evaluation from query randomness
generation. (*)
* Add additional guidance for choosing FFTfriendly fields.
02:
* Complete the initial specification of Poplar1.
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* Extend (V)DAF syntax to include a "public share" output by the
Client and distributed to all of the Aggregators. This is to
accommodate "extractable" IDPFs as required for Poplar1. (See
[BBCGGI21], Section 4.3 for details.)
* Extend (V)DAF syntax to allow the unsharding step to take into
account the number of measurements aggregated.
* Extend FLP syntax by adding a method for decoding the aggregate
result from a vector of field elements. The new method takes into
account the number of measurements.
* Prio3: Align aggregate result computation with updated FLP syntax.
* Prg: Add a method for statefully generating a vector of field
elements.
* Field: Require that field elements are fully reduced before
decoding. (*)
* Define new field Field255.
01:
* Require that VDAFs specify serialization of aggregate shares.
* Define Distributed Aggregation Functions (DAFs).
* Prio3: Move proof verifier check from prep_next() to
prep_shares_to_prep(). (*)
* Remove public parameter and replace verification parameter with a
"verification key" and "Aggregator ID".
2. Conventions and Definitions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
Algorithms in this document are written in Python 3. Type hints are
used to define input and output types. A fatal error in a program
(e.g., failure to parse one of the function parameters) is usually
handled by raising an exception.
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A variable with type Bytes is a byte string. This document defines
several bytestring constants. When comprised of printable ASCII
characters, they are written as Python 3 bytestring literals (e.g.,
b'some constant string').
A global constant VERSION is defined, which algorithms are free to
use as desired. Its value SHALL be b'vdaf03'.
This document describes algorithms for multiparty computations in
which the parties typically communicate over a network. Wherever a
quantity is defined that must be be transmitted from one party to
another, this document prescribes a particular encoding of that
quantity as a byte string.
OPEN ISSUE It might be better to not be prescriptive about how
quantities are encoded on the wire. See issue #58.
Some common functionalities:
* zeros(len: Unsigned) > Bytes returns an array of zero bytes. The
length of output MUST be len.
* gen_rand(len: Unsigned) > Bytes returns an array of random bytes.
The length of output MUST be len.
* byte(int: Unsigned) > Bytes returns the representation of int as
a byte string. The value of int MUST be in [0,256).
* concat(parts: Vec[Bytes]) > Bytes returns the concatenation of
the input byte strings, i.e., parts[0]  ...  parts[len(parts)
1].
* xor(left: Bytes, right: Bytes) > Bytes returns the bitwise XOR of
left and right. An exception is raised if the inputs are not the
same length.
* I2OSP and OS2IP from [RFC8017], which are used, respectively, to
convert a nonnegative integer to a byte string and convert a byte
string to a nonnegative integer.
* next_power_of_2(n: Unsigned) > Unsigned returns the smallest
integer greater than or equal to n that is also a power of two.
3. Overview
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++
+> Aggregator 0 +
 ++ 
 ^ 
  
 V 
 ++ 
 +> Aggregator 1 + 
  ++  
+++  ^  +>++
 Client +  +> Collector > Aggregate
+++ +>++
 ... 
 
  
 V 
 ++ 
+> Aggregator N1 +
++
Input shares Aggregate shares
Figure 1: Overall data flow of a (V)DAF
In a DAF or VDAFbased private measurement system, we distinguish
three types of actors: Clients, Aggregators, and Collectors. The
overall flow of the measurement process is as follows:
* To submit an individual measurement, the Client shards the
measurement into "input shares" and sends one input share to each
Aggregator.
* The Aggregators convert their input shares into "output shares".
 Output shares are in onetoone correspondence with the input
shares.
 Just as each Aggregator receives one input share of each input,
at the end of this process, each aggregator holds one output
share.
 In VDAFs, Aggregators will need to exchange information among
themselves as part of the validation process.
* Each Aggregator combines the output shares across inputs in the
batch to compute the "aggregate share" for that batch, i.e., its
share of the desired aggregate result.
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* The Aggregators submit their aggregate shares to the Collector,
who combines them to obtain the aggregate result over the batch.
Aggregators are a new class of actor relative to traditional
measurement systems where clients submit measurements to a single
server. They are critical for both the privacy properties of the
system and, in the case of VDAFs, the correctness of the measurements
obtained. The privacy properties of the system are assured by non
collusion among Aggregators, and Aggregators are the entities that
perform validation of Client measurements. Thus clients trust
Aggregators not to collude (typically it is required that at least
one Aggregator is honest), and Collectors trust Aggregators to
correctly run the protocol.
Within the bounds of the noncollusion requirements of a given (V)DAF
instance, it is possible for the same entity to play more than one
role. For example, the Collector could also act as an Aggregator,
effectively using the other Aggregator(s) to augment a basic client
server protocol.
In this document, we describe the computations performed by the
actors in this system. It is up to the higherlevel protocol making
use of the (V)DAF to arrange for the required information to be
delivered to the proper actors in the proper sequence. In general,
we assume that all communications are confidential and mutually
authenticated, with the exception that Clients submitting
measurements may be anonymous.
4. Definition of DAFs
By way of a gentle introduction to VDAFs, this section describes a
simpler class of schemes called Distributed Aggregation Functions
(DAFs). Unlike VDAFs, DAFs do not provide verifiability of the
computation. Clients must therefore be trusted to compute their
input shares correctly. Because of this fact, the use of a DAF is
NOT RECOMMENDED for most applications. See Section 9 for additional
discussion.
A DAF scheme is used to compute a particular "aggregation function"
over a set of measurements generated by Clients. Depending on the
aggregation function, the Collector might select an "aggregation
parameter" and disseminates it to the Aggregators. The semantics of
this parameter is specific to the aggregation function, but in
general it is used to represent the set of "queries" that can be made
on the measurement set. For example, the aggregation parameter is
used to represent the candidate prefixes in Poplar1 Section 8.
Execution of a DAF has four distinct stages:
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* Sharding  Each Client generates input shares from its measurement
and distributes them among the Aggregators.
* Preparation  Each Aggregator converts each input share into an
output share compatible with the aggregation function. This
computation involves the aggregation parameter. In general, each
aggregation parameter may result in a different an output share.
* Aggregation  Each Aggregator combines a sequence of output shares
into its aggregate share and sends the aggregate share to the
Collector.
* Unsharding  The Collector combines the aggregate shares into the
aggregate result.
Sharding and Preparation are done once per measurement. Aggregation
and Unsharding are done over a batch of measurements (more precisely,
over the recovered output shares).
A concrete DAF specifies an algorithm for the computation needed in
each of these stages. The interface of each algorithm is defined in
the remainder of this section. In addition, a concrete DAF defines
the associated constants and types enumerated in the following table.
+=============+====================================+
 Parameter  Description 
+=============+====================================+
 ID  Algorithm identifier for this DAF. 
+++
 SHARES  Number of input shares into which 
  each measurement is sharded 
+++
 Measurement  Type of each measurement 
+++
 AggParam  Type of aggregation parameter 
+++
 OutShare  Type of each output share 
+++
 AggResult  Type of the aggregate result 
+++
Table 1: Constants and types defined by each
concrete DAF.
These types define some of the inputs and outputs of DAF methods at
various stages of the computation. Observe that only the
measurements, output shares, the aggregate result, and the
aggregation parameter have an explicit type. All other values  in
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particular, the input shares and the aggregate shares  have type
Bytes and are treated as opaque byte strings. This is because these
values must be transmitted between parties over a network.
OPEN ISSUE It might be cleaner to define a type for each value,
then have that type implement an encoding where necessary. This
way each method parameter has a meaningful type hint. See
issue#58.
Each DAF is identified by a unique, 32bit integer ID. Identifiers
for each (V)DAF specified in this document are defined in Table 16.
4.1. Sharding
In order to protect the privacy of its measurements, a DAF Client
shards its measurements into a sequence of input shares. The
measurement_to_input_shares method is used for this purpose.
* Daf.measurement_to_input_shares(input: Measurement) > (Bytes,
Vec[Bytes]) is the randomized inputdistribution algorithm run by
each Client. It consumes the measurement and produces a "public
share", distributed to each of the Aggregators, and a
corresponding sequence of input shares, one for each Aggregator.
The length of the output vector MUST be SHARES.
Client
======
measurement

V
++
 measurement_to_input_shares 
++
  ... 
V V V
input_share_0 input_share_1 input_share_[SHARES1]
  ... 
V V V
Aggregator 0 Aggregator 1 Aggregator SHARES1
Figure 2: The Client divides its measurement into input shares
and distributes them to the Aggregators.
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4.2. Preparation
Once an Aggregator has received the public share and one of the input
shares, the next step is to prepare the input share for aggregation.
This is accomplished using the following algorithm:
* Daf.prep(agg_id: Unsigned, agg_param: AggParam, public_share:
Bytes, input_share: Bytes) > OutShare is the deterministic
preparation algorithm. It takes as input the public share and one
of the input shares generated by a Client, the Aggregator's unique
identifier, and the aggregation parameter selected by the
Collector and returns an output share.
The protocol in which the DAF is used MUST ensure that the
Aggregator's identifier is equal to the integer in range [0, SHARES)
that matches the index of input_share in the sequence of input shares
output by the Client.
4.3. Aggregation
Once an Aggregator holds output shares for a batch of measurements
(where batches are defined by the application), it combines them into
a share of the desired aggregate result:
* Daf.out_shares_to_agg_share(agg_param: AggParam, out_shares:
Vec[OutShare]) > agg_share: Bytes is the deterministic
aggregation algorithm. It is run by each Aggregator a set of
recovered output shares.
Aggregator 0 Aggregator 1 Aggregator SHARES1
============ ============ ===================
out_share_0_0 out_share_1_0 out_share_[SHARES1]_0
out_share_0_1 out_share_1_1 out_share_[SHARES1]_1
out_share_0_2 out_share_1_2 out_share_[SHARES1]_2
... ... ...
out_share_0_B out_share_1_B out_share_[SHARES1]_B
  
V V V
++ ++ ++
 out2agg   out2agg  ...  out2agg 
++ ++ ++
  
V V V
agg_share_0 agg_share_1 agg_share_[SHARES1]
Figure 3: Aggregation of output shares. `B` indicates the number of
measurements in the batch.
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For simplicity, we have written this algorithm in a "oneshot" form,
where all output shares for a batch are provided at the same time.
Many DAFs may also support a "streaming" form, where shares are
processed one at a time.
OPEN ISSUE It may be worthwhile to explicitly define the
"streaming" API. See issue#47.
4.4. Unsharding
After the Aggregators have aggregated a sufficient number of output
shares, each sends its aggregate share to the Collector, who runs the
following algorithm to recover the following output:
* Daf.agg_shares_to_result(agg_param: AggParam, agg_shares:
Vec[Bytes], num_measurements: Unsigned) > AggResult is run by the
Collector in order to compute the aggregate result from the
Aggregators' shares. The length of agg_shares MUST be SHARES.
num_measurements is the number of measurements that contributed to
each of the aggregate shares. This algorithm is deterministic.
Aggregator 0 Aggregator 1 Aggregator SHARES1
============ ============ ===================
agg_share_0 agg_share_1 agg_share_[SHARES1]
  
V V V
++
 agg_shares_to_result 
++

V
agg_result
Collector
=========
Figure 4: Computation of the final aggregate result from
aggregate shares.
QUESTION Maybe the aggregation algorithms should be randomized in
order to allow the Aggregators (or the Collector) to add noise for
differential privacy. (See the security considerations of [DAP].)
Or is this outofscope of this document? See https://github.com/
ietfwgppm/ppmspecification/issues/19.
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4.5. Execution of a DAF
Securely executing a DAF involves emulating the following procedure.
def run_daf(Daf,
agg_param: Daf.AggParam,
measurements: Vec[Daf.Measurement]):
out_shares = [ [] for j in range(Daf.SHARES) ]
for measurement in measurements:
# Each Client shards its measurement into input shares and
# distributes them among the Aggregators.
(public_share, input_shares) = \
Daf.measurement_to_input_shares(measurement)
# Each Aggregator prepares its input share for aggregation.
for j in range(Daf.SHARES):
out_shares[j].append(
Daf.prep(j, agg_param, public_share, input_shares[j]))
# Each Aggregator aggregates its output shares into an aggregate
# share and sends it to the Collector.
agg_shares = []
for j in range(Daf.SHARES):
agg_share_j = Daf.out_shares_to_agg_share(agg_param,
out_shares[j])
agg_shares.append(agg_share_j)
# Collector unshards the aggregate result.
num_measurements = len(measurements)
agg_result = Daf.agg_shares_to_result(agg_param, agg_shares,
num_measurements)
return agg_result
Figure 5: Execution of a DAF.
The inputs to this procedure are the same as the aggregation function
computed by the DAF: An aggregation parameter and a sequence of
measurements. The procedure prescribes how a DAF is executed in a
"benign" environment in which there is no adversary and the messages
are passed among the protocol participants over secure pointtopoint
channels. In reality, these channels need to be instantiated by some
"wrapper protocol", such as [DAP], that realizes these channels using
suitable cryptographic mechanisms. Moreover, some fraction of the
Aggregators (or Clients) may be malicious and diverge from their
prescribed behaviors. Section 9 describes the execution of the DAF
in various adversarial environments and what properties the wrapper
protocol needs to provide in each.
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5. Definition of VDAFs
Like DAFs described in the previous section, a VDAF scheme is used to
compute a particular aggregation function over a set of Client
generated measurements. Evaluation of a VDAF involves the same four
stages as for DAFs: Sharding, Preparation, Aggregation, and
Unsharding. However, the Preparation stage will require interaction
among the Aggregators in order to facilitate verifiability of the
computation's correctness. Accommodating this interaction will
require syntactic changes.
Overall execution of a VDAF comprises the following stages:
* Sharding  Computing input shares from an individual measurement
* Preparation  Conversion and verification of input shares to
output shares compatible with the aggregation function being
computed
* Aggregation  Combining a sequence of output shares into an
aggregate share
* Unsharding  Combining a sequence of aggregate shares into an
aggregate result
In contrast to DAFs, the Preparation stage for VDAFs now performs an
additional task: Verification of the validity of the recovered output
shares. This process ensures that aggregating the output shares will
not lead to a garbled aggregate result.
The remainder of this section defines the VDAF interface. The
attributes are listed in Table 2 are defined by each concrete VDAF.
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+=================+==========================================+
 Parameter  Description 
+=================+==========================================+
 ID  Algorithm identifier for this VDAF. 
+++
 VERIFY_KEY_SIZE  Size (in bytes) of the verification key 
  (Section 5.2) 
+++
 ROUNDS  Number of rounds of communication during 
  the Preparation stage (Section 5.2) 
+++
 SHARES  Number of input shares into which each 
  measurement is sharded (Section 5.1) 
+++
 Measurement  Type of each measurement 
+++
 AggParam  Type of aggregation parameter 
+++
 Prep  State of each Aggregator during 
  Preparation (Section 5.2) 
+++
 OutShare  Type of each output share 
+++
 AggResult  Type of the aggregate result 
+++
Table 2: Constants and types defined by each concrete VDAF.
Similarly to DAFs (see {[secdaf}}), any output of a VDAF method that
must be transmitted from one party to another is treated as an opaque
byte string. All other quantities are given a concrete type.
OPEN ISSUE It might be cleaner to define a type for each value,
then have that type implement an encoding where necessary. See
issue#58.
Each VDAF is identified by a unique, 32bit integer ID. Identifiers
for each (V)DAF specified in this document are defined in Table 16.
5.1. Sharding
Sharding is syntactically identical to DAFs (cf. Section 4.1):
* Vdaf.measurement_to_input_shares(measurement: Measurement) >
(Bytes, Vec[Bytes]) is the randomized inputdistribution algorithm
run by each Client. It consumes the measurement and produces a
public share, distributed to each of Aggregators, and the
corresponding sequence of input shares, one for each Aggregator.
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Depending on the VDAF, the input shares may encode additional
information used to verify the recovered output shares (e.g., the
"proof shares" in Prio3 Section 7). The length of the output
vector MUST be SHARES.
5.2. Preparation
To recover and verify output shares, the Aggregators interact with
one another over ROUNDS rounds. Prior to each round, each Aggregator
constructs an outbound message. Next, the sequence of outbound
messages is combined into a single message, called a "preparation
message". (Each of the outbound messages are called "preparation
message shares".) Finally, the preparation message is distributed to
the Aggregators to begin the next round.
An Aggregator begins the first round with its input share and it
begins each subsequent round with the previous preparation message.
Its output in the last round is its output share and its output in
each of the preceding rounds is a preparationmessage share.
This process involves a value called the "aggregation parameter" used
to map the input shares to output shares. The Aggregators need to
agree on this parameter before they can begin preparing inputs for
aggregation.
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Aggregator 0 Aggregator 1 Aggregator SHARES1
============ ============ ===================
input_share_0 input_share_1 input_share_[SHARES1]
  ... 
V V V
++ ++ ++
 prep_init   prep_init   prep_init 
++ ++ ++
  ...  \
V V V 
++ ++ ++ 
 prep_next   prep_next   prep_next  
++ ++ ++ 
  ...  
V V V  x ROUNDS
++ 
 prep_shares_to_prep  
++ 
 
+++ 
  ...  
V V V /
... ... ...
  
V V V
++ ++ ++
 prep_next   prep_next   prep_next 
++ ++ ++
  ... 
V V V
out_share_0 out_share_1 out_share_[SHARES1]
Figure 6: VDAF preparation process on the input shares for a single
measurement. At the end of the computation, each Aggregator holds an
output share or an error.
To facilitate the preparation process, a concrete VDAF implements the
following class methods:
* Vdaf.prep_init(verify_key: Bytes, agg_id: Unsigned, agg_param:
AggParam, nonce: Bytes, public_share: Bytes, input_share: Bytes)
> Prep is the deterministic preparationstate initialization
algorithm run by each Aggregator to begin processing its input
share into an output share. Its inputs are the shared
verification key (verify_key), the Aggregator's unique identifier
(agg_id), the aggregation parameter (agg_param), the nonce
provided by the environment (nonce, see Figure 7), and the public
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share (public_share) and one of the input shares generated by the
client (input_share). Its output is the Aggregator's initial
preparation state.
The length of verify_key MUST be VERIFY_KEY_SIZE. It is up to the
high level protocol in which the VDAF is used to arrange for the
distribution of the verification key among the Aggregators prior
to the start of this phase of VDAF evaluation.
OPEN ISSUE What security properties do we need for this key
exchange? See issue#18.
Protocols using the VDAF MUST ensure that the Aggregator's
identifier is equal to the integer in range [0, SHARES) that
matches the index of input_share in the sequence of input shares
output by the Client. In addition, protocols MUST ensure that
public share consumed by each of the Aggregators is identical.
This is security critical for VDAFs such as Poplar1 that require
an extractable distributed point function. (See Section 8 for
details.)
* Vdaf.prep_next(prep: Prep, inbound: Optional[Bytes]) >
Union[Tuple[Prep, Bytes], OutShare] is the deterministic
preparationstate update algorithm run by each Aggregator. It
updates the Aggregator's preparation state (prep) and returns
either its next preparation state and its message share for the
current round or, if this is the last round, its output share. An
exception is raised if a valid output share could not be
recovered. The input of this algorithm is the inbound preparation
message or, if this is the first round, None.
* Vdaf.prep_shares_to_prep(agg_param: AggParam, prep_shares:
Vec[Bytes]) > Bytes is the deterministic preparationmessage pre
processing algorithm. It combines the preparationmessage shares
generated by the Aggregators in the previous round into the
preparation message consumed by each in the next round.
In effect, each Aggregator moves through a linear state machine with
ROUNDS+1 states. The Aggregator enters the first state on using the
initialization algorithm, and the update algorithm advances the
Aggregator to the next state. Thus, in addition to defining the
number of rounds (ROUNDS), a VDAF instance defines the state of the
Aggregator after each round.
TODO Consider how to bake this "linear state machine" condition
into the syntax. Given that Python 3 is used as our pseudocode,
it's easier to specify the preparation state using a class.
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The preparationstate update accomplishes two tasks: recovery of
output shares from the input shares and ensuring that the recovered
output shares are valid. The abstraction boundary is drawn so that
an Aggregator only recovers an output share if it is deemed valid (at
least, based on the Aggregator's view of the protocol). Another way
to draw this boundary would be to have the Aggregators recover output
shares first, then verify that they are valid. However, this would
allow the possibility of misusing the API by, say, aggregating an
invalid output share. Moreover, in protocols like Prio+ [AGJOP21]
based on oblivious transfer, it is necessary for the Aggregators to
interact in order to recover aggregatable output shares at all.
Note that it is possible for a VDAF to specify ROUNDS == 0, in which
case each Aggregator runs the preparationstate update algorithm once
and immediately recovers its output share without interacting with
the other Aggregators. However, most, if not all, constructions will
require some amount of interaction in order to ensure validity of the
output shares (while also maintaining privacy).
OPEN ISSUE accommodating 0round VDAFs may require syntax changes
if, for example, public keys are required. On the other hand, we
could consider defining this class of schemes as a different
primitive. See issue#77.
5.3. Aggregation
VDAF Aggregation is identical to DAF Aggregation (cf. Section 4.3):
* Vdaf.out_shares_to_agg_share(agg_param: AggParam, out_shares:
Vec[OutShare]) > agg_share: Bytes is the deterministic
aggregation algorithm. It is run by each Aggregator over the
output shares it has computed over a batch of measurement inputs.
The data flow for this stage is illustrated in Figure 3. Here again,
we have the aggregation algorithm in a "oneshot" form, where all
shares for a batch are provided at the same time. VDAFs typically
also support a "streaming" form, where shares are processed one at a
time.
5.4. Unsharding
VDAF Unsharding is identical to DAF Unsharding (cf. Section 4.4):
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* Vdaf.agg_shares_to_result(agg_param: AggParam, agg_shares:
Vec[Bytes], num_measurements: Unsigned) > AggResult is run by the
Collector in order to compute the aggregate result from the
Aggregators' shares. The length of agg_shares MUST be SHARES.
num_measurements is the number of measurements that contributed to
each of the aggregate shares. This algorithm is deterministic.
The data flow for this stage is illustrated in Figure 4.
5.5. Execution of a VDAF
Secure execution of a VDAF involves simulating the following
procedure.
def run_vdaf(Vdaf,
agg_param: Vdaf.AggParam,
nonces: Vec[Bytes],
measurements: Vec[Vdaf.Measurement]):
# Generate the longlived verification key.
verify_key = gen_rand(Vdaf.VERIFY_KEY_SIZE)
out_shares = []
for (nonce, measurement) in zip(nonces, measurements):
# Each Client shards its measurement into input shares.
(public_share, input_shares) = \
Vdaf.measurement_to_input_shares(measurement)
# Each Aggregator initializes its preparation state.
prep_states = []
for j in range(Vdaf.SHARES):
state = Vdaf.prep_init(verify_key, j,
agg_param,
nonce,
public_share,
input_shares[j])
prep_states.append(state)
# Aggregators recover their output shares.
inbound = None
for i in range(Vdaf.ROUNDS+1):
outbound = []
for j in range(Vdaf.SHARES):
out = Vdaf.prep_next(prep_states[j], inbound)
if i < Vdaf.ROUNDS:
(prep_states[j], out) = out
outbound.append(out)
# This is where we would send messages over the
# network in a distributed VDAF computation.
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if i < Vdaf.ROUNDS:
inbound = Vdaf.prep_shares_to_prep(agg_param,
outbound)
# The final outputs of prepare phase are the output shares.
out_shares.append(outbound)
# Each Aggregator aggregates its output shares into an
# aggregate share. In a distributed VDAF computation, the
# aggregate shares are sent over the network.
agg_shares = []
for j in range(Vdaf.SHARES):
out_shares_j = [out[j] for out in out_shares]
agg_share_j = Vdaf.out_shares_to_agg_share(agg_param,
out_shares_j)
agg_shares.append(agg_share_j)
# Collector unshards the aggregate.
num_measurements = len(measurements)
agg_result = Vdaf.agg_shares_to_result(agg_param, agg_shares,
num_measurements)
return agg_result
Figure 7: Execution of a VDAF.
The inputs to this algorithm are the aggregation parameter, a list of
measurements, and a nonce for each measurement. This document does
not specify how the nonces are chosen, but security requires that the
nonces be unique. See Section 9 for details. As explained in
Section 4.5, the secure execution of a VDAF requires the application
to instantiate secure channels between each of the protocol
participants.
6. Preliminaries
This section describes the primitives that are common to the VDAFs
specified in this document.
6.1. Finite Fields
Both Prio3 and Poplar1 use finite fields of prime order. Finite
field elements are represented by a class Field with the following
associated parameters:
* MODULUS: Unsigned is the prime modulus that defines the field.
* ENCODED_SIZE: Unsigned is the number of bytes used to encode a
field element as a byte string.
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A concrete Field also implements the following class methods:
* Field.zeros(length: Unsigned) > output: Vec[Field] returns a
vector of zeros. The length of output MUST be length.
* Field.rand_vec(length: Unsigned) > output: Vec[Field] returns a
vector of random field elements. The length of output MUST be
length.
A field element is an instance of a concrete Field. The concrete
class defines the usual arithmetic operations on field elements. In
addition, it defines the following instance method for converting a
field element to an unsigned integer:
* elem.as_unsigned() > Unsigned returns the integer representation
of field element elem.
Likewise, each concrete Field implements a constructor for converting
an unsigned integer into a field element:
* Field(integer: Unsigned) returns integer represented as a field
element. The value of integer MUST be less than Field.MODULUS.
Finally, each concrete Field has two derived class methods, one for
encoding a vector of field elements as a byte string and another for
decoding a vector of field elements.
def encode_vec(Field, data: Vec[Field]) > Bytes:
encoded = Bytes()
for x in data:
encoded += I2OSP(x.as_unsigned(), Field.ENCODED_SIZE)
return encoded
def decode_vec(Field, encoded: Bytes) > Vec[Field]:
L = Field.ENCODED_SIZE
if len(encoded) % L != 0:
raise ERR_DECODE
vec = []
for i in range(0, len(encoded), L):
encoded_x = encoded[i:i+L]
x = OS2IP(encoded_x)
if x >= Field.MODULUS:
raise ERR_DECODE # Integer is larger than modulus
vec.append(Field(x))
return vec
Figure 8: Derived class methods for finite fields.
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6.1.1. Auxiliary Functions
The following auxiliary functions on vectors of field elements are
used in the remainder of this document. Note that an exception is
raised by each function if the operands are not the same length.
# Compute the inner product of the operands.
def inner_product(left: Vec[Field], right: Vec[Field]) > Field:
return sum(map(lambda x: x[0] * x[1], zip(left, right)))
# Subtract the right operand from the left and return the result.
def vec_sub(left: Vec[Field], right: Vec[Field]):
return list(map(lambda x: x[0]  x[1], zip(left, right)))
# Add the right operand to the left and return the result.
def vec_add(left: Vec[Field], right: Vec[Field]):
return list(map(lambda x: x[0] + x[1], zip(left, right)))
Figure 9: Common functions for finite fields.
6.1.2. FFTFriendly Fields
Some VDAFs require fields that are suitable for efficient computation
of the discrete Fourier transform, as this allows for fast polynomial
interpolation. (One example is Prio3 (Section 7) when instantiated
with the generic FLP of Section 7.3.3.) Specifically, a field is
said to be "FFTfriendly" if, in addition to satisfying the interface
described in Section 6.1, it implements the following method:
* Field.gen() > Field returns the generator of a large subgroup of
the multiplicative group. To be FFTfriendly, the order of this
subgroup NUST be a power of 2. In addition, the size of the
subgroup dictates how large interpolated polynomials can be. It
is RECOMMENDED that a generator is chosen with order at least
2^20.
FFTfriendly fields also define the following parameter:
* GEN_ORDER: Unsigned is the order of a multiplicative subgroup
generated by Field.gen().
6.1.3. Parameters
The tables below define finite fields used in the remainder of this
document.
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+==============+=======================+
 Parameter  Value 
+==============+=======================+
 MODULUS  2^32 * 4294967295 + 1 
+++
 ENCODED_SIZE  8 
+++
 Generator  7^4294967295 
+++
 GEN_ORDER  2^32 
+++
Table 3: Field64, an FFTfriendly field.
+==============+================================+
 Parameter  Value 
+==============+================================+
 MODULUS  2^66 * 4611686018427387897 + 1 
+++
 ENCODED_SIZE  16 
+++
 Generator  7^4611686018427387897 
+++
 GEN_ORDER  2^66 
+++
Table 4: Field128, an FFTfriendly field.
+==============+============+
 Parameter  Value 
+==============+============+
 MODULUS  2^255  19 
+++
 ENCODED_SIZE  32 
+++
Table 5: Field255.
OPEN ISSUE We currently use bigendian for encoding field
elements. However, for implementations of GF(2^25519), little
endian is more common. See issue#90.
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6.2. Pseudorandom Generators
A pseudorandom generator (PRG) is used to expand a short,
(pseudo)random seed into a long string of pseudorandom bits. A PRG
suitable for this document implements the interface specified in this
section. Concrete constructions are described in the subsections
that follow.
PRGs are defined by a class Prg with the following associated
parameter:
* SEED_SIZE: Unsigned is the size (in bytes) of a seed.
A concrete Prg implements the following class method:
* Prg(seed: Bytes, info: Bytes) constructs an instance of Prg from
the given seed and info string. The seed MUST be of length
SEED_SIZE and MUST be generated securely (i.e., it is either the
output of gen_rand or a previous invocation of the PRG). The info
string is used for domain separation.
* prg.next(length: Unsigned) returns the next length bytes of output
of PRG. If the seed was securely generated, the output can be
treated as pseudorandom.
Each Prg has two derived class methods. The first is used to derive
a fresh seed from an existing one. The second is used to compute a
sequence of pseudorandom field elements. For each method, the seed
MUST be of length SEED_SIZE and MUST be generated securely (i.e., it
is either the output of gen_rand or a previous invocation of the
PRG).
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# Derive a new seed.
def derive_seed(Prg, seed: Bytes, info: Bytes) > bytes:
prg = Prg(seed, info)
return prg.next(Prg.SEED_SIZE)
# Output the next `length` pseudorandom elements of `Field`.
def next_vec(self, Field, length: Unsigned):
m = next_power_of_2(Field.MODULUS)  1
vec = []
while len(vec) < length:
x = OS2IP(self.next(Field.ENCODED_SIZE))
x &= m
if x < Field.MODULUS:
vec.append(Field(x))
return vec
# Expand the input `seed` into vector of `length` field elements.
def expand_into_vec(Prg,
Field,
seed: Bytes,
info: Bytes,
length: Unsigned):
prg = Prg(seed, info)
return prg.next_vec(Field, length)
Figure 10: Derived class methods for PRGs.
6.2.1. PrgAes128
OPEN ISSUE Phillipp points out that a fixedkey mode of AES may be
more performant (https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/074.pdf). See
issue#32.
TODO(issue #106) Decide if it's safe to model this construction as
a random oracle. PrgAes128.derive_seed() is used for the Fiat
Shamir heuristic in Prio3 (Section 7). A fixedkey is used for
this step (the allzero string). A reasonable starting point
would be to model AES as an ideal cipher.
Our first construction, PrgAes128, converts a blockcipher, namely
AES128, into a PRG. Seed expansion involves two steps. In the
first step, CMAC [RFC4493] is applied to the seed and info string to
get a fresh key. In the second step, the fresh key is used in CTR
mode to produce a key stream for generating the output. A fixed
initialization vector (IV) is used.
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class PrgAes128:
SEED_SIZE: Unsigned = 16
def __init__(self, seed, info):
self.length_consumed = 0
# Use CMAC as a pseudorandom function to derive a key.
self.key = AES128CMAC(seed, info)
def next(self, length):
self.length_consumed += length
# CTRmode encryption of the allzero string of the desired
# length and using a fixed, allzero IV.
stream = AES128CTR(key, zeros(16), zeros(self.length_consumed))
return stream[length:]
Figure 11: Definition of PRG PrgAes128.
7. Prio3
NOTE This construction has not undergone significant security
analysis.
This section describes Prio3, a VDAF for Prio [CGB17]. Prio is
suitable for a wide variety of aggregation functions, including (but
not limited to) sum, mean, standard deviation, estimation of
quantiles (e.g., median), and linear regression. In fact, the scheme
described in this section is compatible with any aggregation function
that has the following structure:
* Each measurement is encoded as a vector over some finite field.
* Input validity is determined by an arithmetic circuit evaluated
over the encoded input. (An "arithmetic circuit" is a function
comprised of arithmetic operations in the field.) The circuit's
output is a single field element: if zero, then the input is said
to be "valid"; otherwise, if the output is nonzero, then the
input is said to be "invalid".
* The aggregate result is obtained by summing up the encoded input
vectors and computing some function of the sum.
At a high level, Prio3 distributes this computation as follows. Each
Client first shards its measurement by first encoding it, then
splitting the vector into secret shares and sending a share to each
Aggregator. Next, in the preparation phase, the Aggregators carry
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out a multiparty computation to determine if their shares correspond
to a valid input (as determined by the arithmetic circuit). This
computation involves a "proof" of validity generated by the Client.
Next, each Aggregator sums up its input shares locally. Finally, the
Collector sums up the aggregate shares and computes the aggregate
result.
This VDAF does not have an aggregation parameter. Instead, the
output share is derived from the input share by applying a fixed map.
See Section 8 for an example of a VDAF that makes meaningful use of
the aggregation parameter.
As the name implies, Prio3 is a descendant of the original Prio
construction. A second iteration was deployed in the [ENPA] system,
and like the VDAF described here, the ENPA system was built from
techniques introduced in [BBCGGI19] that significantly improve
communication cost. That system was specialized for a particular
aggregation function; the goal of Prio3 is to provide the same level
of generality as the original construction.
The core component of Prio3 is a "Fully Linear Proof (FLP)" system.
Introduced by [BBCGGI19], the FLP encapsulates the functionality
required for encoding and validating inputs. Prio3 can be thought of
as a transformation of a particular class of FLPs into a VDAF.
The remainder of this section is structured as follows. The syntax
for FLPs is described in Section 7.1. The generic transformation of
an FLP into Prio3 is specified in Section 7.2. Next, a concrete FLP
suitable for any validity circuit is specified in Section 7.3.
Finally, instantiations of Prio3 for various types of measurements
are specified in Section 7.4. Test vectors can be found in
Appendix "Test Vectors".
7.1. Fully Linear Proof (FLP) Systems
Conceptually, an FLP is a twoparty protocol executed by a prover and
a verifier. In actual use, however, the prover's computation is
carried out by the Client, and the verifier's computation is
distributed among the Aggregators. The Client generates a "proof" of
its input's validity and distributes shares of the proof to the
Aggregators. Each Aggregator then performs some a computation on its
input share and proof share locally and sends the result to the other
Aggregators. Combining the exchanged messages allows each Aggregator
to decide if it holds a share of a valid input. (See Section 7.2 for
details.)
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As usual, we will describe the interface implemented by a concrete
FLP in terms of an abstract base class Flp that specifies the set of
methods and parameters a concrete FLP must provide.
The parameters provided by a concrete FLP are listed in Table 6.
+================+==========================================+
 Parameter  Description 
+================+==========================================+
 PROVE_RAND_LEN  Length of the prover randomness, the 
  number of random field elements consumed 
  by the prover when generating a proof 
+++
 QUERY_RAND_LEN  Length of the query randomness, the 
  number of random field elements consumed 
  by the verifier 
+++
 JOINT_RAND_LEN  Length of the joint randomness, the 
  number of random field elements consumed 
  by both the prover and verifier 
+++
 INPUT_LEN  Length of the encoded measurement 
  (Section 7.1.1) 
+++
 OUTPUT_LEN  Length of the aggregatable output 
  (Section 7.1.1) 
+++
 PROOF_LEN  Length of the proof 
+++
 VERIFIER_LEN  Length of the verifier message generated 
  by querying the input and proof 
+++
 Measurement  Type of the measurement 
+++
 AggResult  Type of the aggregate result 
+++
 Field  As defined in (Section 6.1) 
+++
Table 6: Constants and types defined by a concrete FLP.
An FLP specifies the following algorithms for generating and
verifying proofs of validity (encoding is described below in
Section 7.1.1):
* Flp.prove(input: Vec[Field], prove_rand: Vec[Field], joint_rand:
Vec[Field]) > Vec[Field] is the deterministic proofgeneration
algorithm run by the prover. Its inputs are the encoded input,
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the "prover randomness" prove_rand, and the "joint randomness"
joint_rand. The prover randomness is used only by the prover, but
the joint randomness is shared by both the prover and verifier.
* Flp.query(input: Vec[Field], proof: Vec[Field], query_rand:
Vec[Field], joint_rand: Vec[Field], num_shares: Unsigned) >
Vec[Field] is the querygeneration algorithm run by the verifier.
This is used to "query" the input and proof. The result of the
query (i.e., the output of this function) is called the "verifier
message". In addition to the input and proof, this algorithm
takes as input the query randomness query_rand and the joint
randomness joint_rand. The former is used only by the verifier.
num_shares specifies how many input and proof shares were
generated.
* Flp.decide(verifier: Vec[Field]) > Bool is the deterministic
decision algorithm run by the verifier. It takes as input the
verifier message and outputs a boolean indicating if the input
from which it was generated is valid.
Our application requires that the FLP is "fully linear" in the sense
defined in [BBCGGI19]. As a practical matter, what this property
implies is that, when run on a share of the input and proof, the
querygeneration algorithm outputs a share of the verifier message.
Furthermore, the "strong zeroknowledge" property of the FLP system
ensures that the verifier message reveals nothing about the input's
validity. Therefore, to decide if an input is valid, the Aggregators
will run the querygeneration algorithm locally, exchange verifier
shares, combine them to recover the verifier message, and run the
decision algorithm.
The querygeneration algorithm includes a parameter num_shares that
specifies the number of shares of the input and proof that were
generated. If these data are not secret shared, then num_shares ==
1. This parameter is useful for certain FLP constructions. For
example, the FLP in Section 7.3 is defined in terms of an arithmetic
circuit; when the circuit contains constants, it is sometimes
necessary to normalize those constants to ensure that the circuit's
output, when run on a valid input, is the same regardless of the
number of shares.
An FLP is executed by the prover and verifier as follows:
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def run_flp(Flp, inp: Vec[Flp.Field], num_shares: Unsigned):
joint_rand = Flp.Field.rand_vec(Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN)
prove_rand = Flp.Field.rand_vec(Flp.PROVE_RAND_LEN)
query_rand = Flp.Field.rand_vec(Flp.QUERY_RAND_LEN)
# Prover generates the proof.
proof = Flp.prove(inp, prove_rand, joint_rand)
# Verifier queries the input and proof.
verifier = Flp.query(inp, proof, query_rand, joint_rand, num_shares)
# Verifier decides if the input is valid.
return Flp.decide(verifier)
Figure 12: Execution of an FLP.
The proof system is constructed so that, if input is a valid input,
then run_flp(Flp, input, 1) always returns True. On the other hand,
if input is invalid, then as long as joint_rand and query_rand are
generated uniform randomly, the output is False with overwhelming
probability.
We remark that [BBCGGI19] defines a much larger class of fully linear
proof systems than we consider here. In particular, what is called
an "FLP" here is called a 1.5round, publiccoin, interactive oracle
proof system in their paper.
7.1.1. Encoding the Input
The type of measurement being aggregated is defined by the FLP.
Hence, the FLP also specifies a method of encoding raw measurements
as a vector of field elements:
* Flp.encode(measurement: Measurement) > Vec[Field] encodes a raw
measurement as a vector of field elements. The return value MUST
be of length INPUT_LEN.
For some FLPs, the encoded input also includes redundant field
elements that are useful for checking the proof, but which are not
needed after the proof has been checked. An example is the "integer
sum" data type from [CGB17] in which an integer in range [0, 2^k) is
encoded as a vector of k field elements (this type is also defined in
Section 7.4.2). After consuming this vector, all that is needed is
the integer it represents. Thus the FLP defines an algorithm for
truncating the input to the length of the aggregated output:
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* Flp.truncate(input: Vec[Field]) > Vec[Field] maps an encoded
input to an aggregatable output. The length of the input MUST be
INPUT_LEN and the length of the output MUST be OUTPUT_LEN.
Once the aggregate shares have been computed and combined together,
their sum can be converted into the aggregate result. This could be
a projection from the FLP's field to the integers, or it could
include additional postprocessing.
* Flp.decode(output: Vec[Field], num_measurements: Unsigned) >
AggResult maps a sum of aggregate shares to an aggregate result.
The length of the input MUST be OUTPUT_LEN. num_measurements is
the number of measurements that contributed to the aggregated
output.
We remark that, taken together, these three functionalities
correspond roughly to the notion of "Affineaggregatable encodings
(AFEs)" from [CGB17].
7.2. Construction
This section specifies Prio3, an implementation of the Vdaf interface
(Section 5). It has two generic parameters: an Flp (Section 7.1) and
a Prg (Section 6.2). The associated constants and types required by
the Vdaf interface are defined in Table 7. The methods required for
sharding, preparation, aggregation, and unsharding are described in
the remaining subsections.
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+=================+===============================================+
 Parameter  Value 
+=================+===============================================+
 VERIFY_KEY_SIZE  Prg.SEED_SIZE 
+++
 ROUNDS  1 
+++
 SHARES  in [2, 255) 
+++
 Measurement  Flp.Measurement 
+++
 AggParam  None 
+++
 Prep  Tuple[Vec[Flp.Field], Optional[Bytes], Bytes] 
+++
 OutShare  Vec[Flp.Field] 
+++
 AggResult  Flp.AggResult 
+++
Table 7: Associated parameters for the Prio3 VDAF.
7.2.1. Sharding
Recall from Section 7.1 that the FLP syntax calls for "joint
randomness" shared by the prover (i.e., the Client) and the verifier
(i.e., the Aggregators). VDAFs have no such notion. Instead, the
Client derives the joint randomness from its input in a way that
allows the Aggregators to reconstruct it from their input shares.
(This idea is based on the FiatShamir heuristic and is described in
Section 6.2.3 of [BBCGGI19].)
The inputdistribution algorithm involves the following steps:
1. Encode the Client's raw measurement as an input for the FLP
2. Shard the input into a sequence of input shares
3. Derive the joint randomness from the input shares
4. Run the FLP proofgeneration algorithm using the derived joint
randomness
5. Shard the proof into a sequence of proof shares
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The algorithm is specified below. Notice that only one set of input
and proof shares (called the "leader" shares below) are vectors of
field elements. The other shares (called the "helper" shares) are
represented instead by PRG seeds, which are expanded into vectors of
field elements.
The code refers to auxiliary functions for encoding the shares and
deriving the joint randomness. In particular, encode_leader_share
and encode_helper_share are used for encoding and joint_rand is used
for joint randomness. These are defined in Section 7.2.5.
def measurement_to_input_shares(Prio3, measurement):
# Domain separation tag for PRG info string
dst = VERSION + I2OSP(Prio3.ID, 4)
inp = Prio3.Flp.encode(measurement)
# Generate input shares.
leader_input_share = inp
k_helper_input_shares = []
k_helper_blinds = []
k_joint_rand_parts = []
for j in range(Prio3.SHARES1):
k_blind = gen_rand(Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE)
k_share = gen_rand(Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE)
helper_input_share = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(
Prio3.Flp.Field,
k_share,
dst + byte(j+1),
Prio3.Flp.INPUT_LEN
)
leader_input_share = vec_sub(leader_input_share,
helper_input_share)
encoded = Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(helper_input_share)
k_joint_rand_part = Prio3.Prg.derive_seed(
k_blind, dst + byte(j+1) + encoded)
k_helper_input_shares.append(k_share)
k_helper_blinds.append(k_blind)
k_joint_rand_parts.append(k_joint_rand_part)
k_leader_blind = gen_rand(Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE)
encoded = Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(leader_input_share)
k_leader_joint_rand_part = Prio3.Prg.derive_seed(
k_leader_blind, dst + byte(0) + encoded)
k_joint_rand_parts.insert(0, k_leader_joint_rand_part)
# Compute joint randomness seed.
k_joint_rand = Prio3.joint_rand(k_joint_rand_parts)
# Generate the proof shares.
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prove_rand = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(
Prio3.Flp.Field,
gen_rand(Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
dst,
Prio3.Flp.PROVE_RAND_LEN
)
joint_rand = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(
Prio3.Flp.Field,
k_joint_rand,
dst,
Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN
)
proof = Prio3.Flp.prove(inp, prove_rand, joint_rand)
leader_proof_share = proof
k_helper_proof_shares = []
for j in range(Prio3.SHARES1):
k_share = gen_rand(Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE)
k_helper_proof_shares.append(k_share)
helper_proof_share = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(
Prio3.Flp.Field,
k_share,
dst + byte(j+1),
Prio3.Flp.PROOF_LEN
)
leader_proof_share = vec_sub(leader_proof_share,
helper_proof_share)
# The Leader's "hint" consists of the joint randomness parts of the
# other Aggregators.
k_leader_hint = k_joint_rand_parts[1:]
input_shares = []
input_shares.append(Prio3.encode_leader_share(
leader_input_share,
leader_proof_share,
k_leader_blind,
k_leader_hint,
))
for j in range(Prio3.SHARES1):
# Each Helper's hint consists of the joint randomness part of the
# other Aggregators.
k_helper_hint = k_joint_rand_parts[:j+1] + \
k_joint_rand_parts[j+2:]
input_shares.append(Prio3.encode_helper_share(
k_helper_input_shares[j],
k_helper_proof_shares[j],
k_helper_blinds[j],
k_helper_hint,
))
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return (b'', input_shares)
Figure 13: Inputdistribution algorithm for Prio3.
7.2.2. Preparation
This section describes the process of recovering output shares from
the input shares. The highlevel idea is that each Aggregator first
queries its input and proof share locally, then exchanges its
verifier share with the other Aggregators. The verifier shares are
then combined into the verifier message, which is used to decide
whether to accept.
In addition, the Aggregators must ensure that they have all used the
same joint randomness for the querygeneration algorithm. The joint
randomness is generated by a PRG seed. Each Aggregator derives a
"part" of this seed from its input share and the "blind" generated by
the client. The seed is derived by hashing together the parts, so
before running the querygeneration algorithm, it must first gather
the parts derived by the other Aggregators.
In order to avoid extra round of communication, the Client sends each
Aggregator a "hint" consisting of the other Aggregators' parts of the
joint randomness seed. This leaves open the possibility that the
Client cheated by, say, forcing the Aggregators to use joint
randomness that biases the proof check procedure some way in its
favor. To mitigate this, the Aggregators also check that they have
all computed the same joint randomness seed before accepting their
output shares. To do so, they exchange their parts of the joint
randomness along with their verifier shares.
The algorithms required for preparation are defined as follows.
These algorithms make use of methods defined in Section 7.2.5.
def prep_init(Prio3, verify_key, agg_id, _agg_param,
nonce, _public_share, input_share):
# Domain separation tag for PRG info string
dst = VERSION + I2OSP(Prio3.ID, 4)
(input_share, proof_share, k_blind, k_hint) = \
Prio3.decode_leader_share(input_share) if agg_id == 0 else \
Prio3.decode_helper_share(dst, agg_id, input_share)
out_share = Prio3.Flp.truncate(input_share)
# Compute joint randomness.
joint_rand, k_joint_rand, k_joint_rand_part = [], None, None
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
encoded = Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(input_share)
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k_joint_rand_part = Prio3.Prg.derive_seed(
k_blind, dst + byte(agg_id) + encoded)
k_joint_rand_parts = k_hint[:agg_id] + \
[k_joint_rand_part] + \
k_hint[agg_id:]
k_joint_rand = Prio3.joint_rand(k_joint_rand_parts)
joint_rand = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(
Prio3.Flp.Field,
k_joint_rand,
dst,
Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN
)
# Query the input and proof share.
query_rand = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(
Prio3.Flp.Field,
verify_key,
dst + byte(255) + nonce,
Prio3.Flp.QUERY_RAND_LEN
)
verifier_share = Prio3.Flp.query(input_share,
proof_share,
query_rand,
joint_rand,
Prio3.SHARES)
prep_msg = Prio3.encode_prep_share(verifier_share,
k_joint_rand_part)
return (out_share, k_joint_rand, prep_msg)
def prep_next(Prio3, prep, inbound):
(out_share, k_joint_rand, prep_msg) = prep
if inbound is None:
return (prep, prep_msg)
k_joint_rand_check = Prio3.decode_prep_msg(inbound)
if k_joint_rand_check != k_joint_rand:
raise ERR_VERIFY # joint randomness check failed
return out_share
def prep_shares_to_prep(Prio3, _agg_param, prep_shares):
dst = VERSION + I2OSP(Prio3.ID, 4)
verifier = Prio3.Flp.Field.zeros(Prio3.Flp.VERIFIER_LEN)
k_joint_rand_parts = []
for encoded in prep_shares:
(verifier_share, k_joint_rand_part) = \
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Prio3.decode_prep_share(encoded)
verifier = vec_add(verifier, verifier_share)
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
k_joint_rand_parts.append(k_joint_rand_part)
if not Prio3.Flp.decide(verifier):
raise ERR_VERIFY # proof verifier check failed
k_joint_rand_check = None
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
k_joint_rand_check = Prio3.joint_rand(k_joint_rand_parts)
return Prio3.encode_prep_msg(k_joint_rand_check)
Figure 14: Preparation state for Prio3.
7.2.3. Aggregation
Aggregating a set of output shares is simply a matter of adding up
the vectors elementwise.
def out_shares_to_agg_share(Prio3, _agg_param, out_shares):
agg_share = Prio3.Flp.Field.zeros(Prio3.Flp.OUTPUT_LEN)
for out_share in out_shares:
agg_share = vec_add(agg_share, out_share)
return Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(agg_share)
Figure 15: Aggregation algorithm for Prio3.
7.2.4. Unsharding
To unshard a set of aggregate shares, the Collector first adds up the
vectors elementwise. It then converts each element of the vector
into an integer.
def agg_shares_to_result(Prio3, _agg_param, agg_shares,
num_measurements):
agg = Prio3.Flp.Field.zeros(Prio3.Flp.OUTPUT_LEN)
for agg_share in agg_shares:
agg = vec_add(agg, Prio3.Flp.Field.decode_vec(agg_share))
return Prio3.Flp.decode(agg, num_measurements)
Figure 16: Computation of the aggregate result for Prio3.
7.2.5. Auxiliary Functions
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def joint_rand(Prio3, k_joint_rand_parts):
dst = VERSION + I2OSP(Prio3.ID, 4)
return Prio3.Prg.derive_seed(
zeros(Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
dst + byte(255) + concat(k_joint_rand_parts))
def encode_leader_share(Prio3,
input_share,
proof_share,
k_blind,
k_hint):
encoded = Bytes()
encoded += Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(input_share)
encoded += Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(proof_share)
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
encoded += k_blind
encoded += concat(k_hint)
return encoded
def decode_leader_share(Prio3, encoded):
l = Prio3.Flp.Field.ENCODED_SIZE * Prio3.Flp.INPUT_LEN
encoded_input_share, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
input_share = Prio3.Flp.Field.decode_vec(encoded_input_share)
l = Prio3.Flp.Field.ENCODED_SIZE * Prio3.Flp.PROOF_LEN
encoded_proof_share, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
proof_share = Prio3.Flp.Field.decode_vec(encoded_proof_share)
l = Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE
k_blind, k_hint = None, None
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
k_blind, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
k_hint = []
for _ in range(Prio3.SHARES1):
k_joint_rand_part, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
k_hint.append(k_joint_rand_part)
if len(encoded) != 0:
raise ERR_DECODE
return (input_share, proof_share, k_blind, k_hint)
def encode_helper_share(Prio3,
k_input_share,
k_proof_share,
k_blind,
k_hint):
encoded = Bytes()
encoded += k_input_share
encoded += k_proof_share
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
encoded += k_blind
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encoded += concat(k_hint)
return encoded
def decode_helper_share(Prio3, dst, agg_id, encoded):
l = Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE
k_input_share, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
input_share = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(Prio3.Flp.Field,
k_input_share,
dst + byte(agg_id),
Prio3.Flp.INPUT_LEN)
k_proof_share, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
proof_share = Prio3.Prg.expand_into_vec(Prio3.Flp.Field,
k_proof_share,
dst + byte(agg_id),
Prio3.Flp.PROOF_LEN)
k_blind, k_hint = None, None
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
k_blind, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
k_hint = []
for _ in range(Prio3.SHARES1):
k_joint_rand_part, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
k_hint.append(k_joint_rand_part)
if len(encoded) != 0:
raise ERR_DECODE
return (input_share, proof_share, k_blind, k_hint)
def encode_prep_share(Prio3, verifier, k_joint_rand):
encoded = Bytes()
encoded += Prio3.Flp.Field.encode_vec(verifier)
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
encoded += k_joint_rand
return encoded
def decode_prep_share(Prio3, encoded):
l = Prio3.Flp.Field.ENCODED_SIZE * Prio3.Flp.VERIFIER_LEN
encoded_verifier, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
verifier = Prio3.Flp.Field.decode_vec(encoded_verifier)
k_joint_rand = None
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
l = Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE
k_joint_rand, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
if len(encoded) != 0:
raise ERR_DECODE
return (verifier, k_joint_rand)
def encode_prep_msg(Prio3, k_joint_rand_check):
encoded = Bytes()
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
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encoded += k_joint_rand_check
return encoded
def decode_prep_msg(Prio3, encoded):
k_joint_rand_check = None
if Prio3.Flp.JOINT_RAND_LEN > 0:
l = Prio3.Prg.SEED_SIZE
k_joint_rand_check, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
if len(encoded) != 0:
raise ERR_DECODE
return k_joint_rand_check
Figure 17: Helper functions required for Prio3.
7.3. A GeneralPurpose FLP
This section describes an FLP based on the construction from in
[BBCGGI19], Section 4.2. We begin in Section 7.3.1 with an overview
of their proof system and the extensions to their proof system made
here. The construction is specified in Section 7.3.3.
OPEN ISSUE We're not yet sure if specifying this generalpurpose
FLP is desirable. It might be preferable to specify specialized
FLPs for each data type that we want to standardize, for two
reasons. First, clear and concise specifications are likely
easier to write for specialized FLPs rather than the general one.
Second, we may end up tailoring each FLP to the measurement type
in a way that improves performance, but breaks compatibility with
the generalpurpose FLP.
In any case, we can't make this decision until we know which data
types to standardize, so for now, we'll stick with the general
purpose construction. The reference implementation can be found
at https://github.com/cfrg/draftirtfcfrgvdaf/tree/main/poc.
OPEN ISSUE Chris Wood points out that the this section reads more
like a paper than a standard. Eventually we'll want to work this
into something that is readily consumable by the CFRG.
7.3.1. Overview
In the proof system of [BBCGGI19], validity is defined via an
arithmetic circuit evaluated over the input: If the circuit output is
zero, then the input is deemed valid; otherwise, if the circuit
output is nonzero, then the input is deemed invalid. Thus the goal
of the proof system is merely to allow the verifier to evaluate the
validity circuit over the input. For our application (Section 7),
this computation is distributed among multiple Aggregators, each of
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which has only a share of the input.
Suppose for a moment that the validity circuit C is affine, meaning
its only operations are addition and multiplicationbyconstant. In
particular, suppose the circuit does not contain a multiplication
gate whose operands are both nonconstant. Then to decide if an
input x is valid, each Aggregator could evaluate C on its share of x
locally, broadcast the output share to its peers, then combine the
output shares locally to recover C(x). This is true because for any
SHARESway secret sharing of x it holds that
C(x_shares[0] + ... + x_shares[SHARES1]) =
C(x_shares[0]) + ... + C(x_shares[SHARES1])
(Note that, for this equality to hold, it may be necessary to scale
any constants in the circuit by SHARES.) However this is not the
case if C is notaffine (i.e., it contains at least one
multiplication gate whose operands are nonconstant). In the proof
system of [BBCGGI19], the proof is designed to allow the
(distributed) verifier to compute the nonaffine operations using
only linear operations on (its share of) the input and proof.
To make this work, the proof system is restricted to validity
circuits that exhibit a special structure. Specifically, an
arithmetic circuit with "Ggates" (see [BBCGGI19], Definition 5.2) is
composed of affine gates and any number of instances of a
distinguished gate G, which may be nonaffine. We will refer to this
class of circuits as 'gadget circuits' and to G as the "gadget".
As an illustrative example, consider a validity circuit C that
recognizes the set L = set([0], [1]). That is, C takes as input a
length1 vector x and returns 0 if x[0] is in [0,2) and outputs
something else otherwise. This circuit can be expressed as the
following degree2 polynomial:
C(x) = (x[0]  1) * x[0] = x[0]^2  x[0]
This polynomial recognizes L because x[0]^2 = x[0] is only true if
x[0] == 0 or x[0] == 1. Notice that the polynomial involves a non
affine operation, x[0]^2. In order to apply [BBCGGI19], Theorem 4.3,
the circuit needs to be rewritten in terms of a gadget that subsumes
this nonaffine operation. For example, the gadget might be
multiplication:
Mul(left, right) = left * right
The validity circuit can then be rewritten in terms of Mul like so:
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C(x[0]) = Mul(x[0], x[0])  x[0]
The proof system of [BBCGGI19] allows the verifier to evaluate each
instance of the gadget (i.e., Mul(x[0], x[0]) in our example) using a
linear function of the input and proof. The proof is constructed
roughly as follows. Let C be the validity circuit and suppose the
gadget is arityL (i.e., it has L input wires.). Let wire[j1,k1]
denote the value of the jth wire of the kth call to the gadget during
the evaluation of C(x). Suppose there are M such calls and fix
distinct field elements alpha[0], ..., alpha[M1]. (We will require
these points to have a special property, as we'll discuss in
Section 7.3.1.1; but for the moment it is only important that they
are distinct.)
The prover constructs from wire and alpha a polynomial that, when
evaluated at alpha[k1], produces the output of the kth call to the
gadget. Let us call this the "gadget polynomial". Polynomial
evaluation is linear, which means that, in the distributed setting,
the Client can disseminate additive shares of the gadget polynomial
that the Aggregators then use to compute additive shares of each
gadget output, allowing each Aggregator to compute its share of C(x)
locally.
There is one more wrinkle, however: It is still possible for a
malicious prover to produce a gadget polynomial that would result in
C(x) being computed incorrectly, potentially resulting in an invalid
input being accepted. To prevent this, the verifier performs a
probabilistic test to check that the gadget polynomial is well
formed. This test, and the procedure for constructing the gadget
polynomial, are described in detail in Section 7.3.3.
7.3.1.1. Extensions
The FLP described in the next section extends the proof system
[BBCGGI19], Section 4.2 in three ways.
First, the validity circuit in our construction includes an
additional, random input (this is the "joint randomness" derived from
the input shares in Prio3; see Section 7.2). This allows for circuit
optimizations that trade a small soundness error for a shorter proof.
For example, consider a circuit that recognizes the set of lengthN
vectors for which each element is either one or zero. A
deterministic circuit could be constructed for this language, but it
would involve a large number of multiplications that would result in
a large proof. (See the discussion in [BBCGGI19], Section 5.2 for
details). A much shorter proof can be constructed for the following
randomized circuit:
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C(inp, r) = r * Range2(inp[0]) + ... + r^N * Range2(inp[N1])
(Note that this is a special case of [BBCGGI19], Theorem 5.2.) Here
inp is the lengthN input and r is a random field element. The
gadget circuit Range2 is the "rangecheck" polynomial described
above, i.e., Range2(x) = x^2  x. The idea is that, if inp is valid
(i.e., each inp[j] is in [0,2)), then the circuit will evaluate to 0
regardless of the value of r; but if inp[j] is not in [0,2) for some
j, the output will be nonzero with high probability.
The second extension implemented by our FLP allows the validity
circuit to contain multiple gadget types. (This generalization was
suggested in [BBCGGI19], Remark 4.5.) For example, the following
circuit is allowed, where Mul and Range2 are the gadgets defined
above (the input has length N+1):
C(inp, r) = r * Range2(inp[0]) + ... + r^N * Range2(inp[N1]) + \
2^0 * inp[0] + ... + 2^(N1) * inp[N1]  \
Mul(inp[N], inp[N])
Finally, [BBCGGI19], Theorem 4.3 makes no restrictions on the choice
of the fixed points alpha[0], ..., alpha[M1], other than to require
that the points are distinct. In this document, the fixed points are
chosen so that the gadget polynomial can be constructed efficiently
using the CooleyTukey FFT ("Fast Fourier Transform") algorithm.
Note that this requires the field to be "FFTfriendly" as defined in
Section 6.1.2.
7.3.2. Validity Circuits
The FLP described in Section 7.3.3 is defined in terms of a validity
circuit Valid that implements the interface described here.
A concrete Valid defines the following parameters:
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+================+=======================================+
 Parameter  Description 
+================+=======================================+
 GADGETS  A list of gadgets 
+++
 GADGET_CALLS  Number of times each gadget is called 
+++
 INPUT_LEN  Length of the input 
+++
 OUTPUT_LEN  Length of the aggregatable output 
+++
 JOINT_RAND_LEN  Length of the random input 
+++
 Measurement  The type of measurement 
+++
 AggResult  Type of the aggregate result 
+++
 Field  An FFTfriendly finite field as 
  defined in Section 6.1.2 
+++
Table 8: Validity circuit parameters.
Each gadget G in GADGETS defines a constant DEGREE that specifies the
circuit's "arithmetic degree". This is defined to be the degree of
the polynomial that computes it. For example, the Mul circuit in
Section 7.3.1 is defined by the polynomial Mul(x) = x * x, which has
degree 2. Hence, the arithmetic degree of this gadget is 2.
Each gadget also defines a parameter ARITY that specifies the
circuit's arity (i.e., the number of input wires).
A concrete Valid provides the following methods for encoding a
measurement as an input vector, truncating an input vector to the
length of an aggregatable output, and converting an aggregated output
to an aggregate result:
* Valid.encode(measurement: Measurement) > Vec[Field] returns a
vector of length INPUT_LEN representing a measurement.
* Valid.truncate(input: Vec[Field]) > Vec[Field] returns a vector
of length OUTPUT_LEN representing an aggregatable output.
* Valid.decode(output: Vec[Field], num_measurements: Unsigned) >
AggResult returns an aggregate result.
Finally, the following class methods are derived for each concrete
Valid:
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# Length of the prover randomness.
def prove_rand_len(Valid):
return sum(map(lambda g: g.ARITY, Valid.GADGETS))
# Length of the query randomness.
def query_rand_len(Valid):
return len(Valid.GADGETS)
# Length of the proof.
def proof_len(Valid):
length = 0
for (g, g_calls) in zip(Valid.GADGETS, Valid.GADGET_CALLS):
P = next_power_of_2(1 + g_calls)
length += g.ARITY + g.DEGREE * (P  1) + 1
return length
# Length of the verifier message.
def verifier_len(Valid):
length = 1
for g in Valid.GADGETS:
length += g.ARITY + 1
return length
Figure 18: Derived methods for validity circuits.
7.3.3. Construction
This section specifies FlpGeneric, an implementation of the Flp
interface (Section 7.1). It has as a generic parameter a validity
circuit Valid implementing the interface defined in Section 7.3.2.
NOTE A reference implementation can be found in
https://github.com/cfrg/draftirtfcfrgvdaf/blob/main/poc/
flp_generic.sage.
The FLP parameters for FlpGeneric are defined in Table 9. The
required methods for generating the proof, generating the verifier,
and deciding validity are specified in the remaining subsections.
In the remainder, we let [n] denote the set {1, ..., n} for positive
integer n. We also define the following constants:
* Let H = len(Valid.GADGETS)
* For each i in [H]:
 Let G_i = Valid.GADGETS[i]
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 Let L_i = Valid.GADGETS[i].ARITY
 Let M_i = Valid.GADGET_CALLS[i]
 Let P_i = next_power_of_2(M_i+1)
 Let alpha_i = Field.gen()^(Field.GEN_ORDER / P_i)
+================+============================================+
 Parameter  Value 
+================+============================================+
 PROVE_RAND_LEN  Valid.prove_rand_len() (see Section 7.3.2) 
+++
 QUERY_RAND_LEN  Valid.query_rand_len() (see Section 7.3.2) 
+++
 JOINT_RAND_LEN  Valid.JOINT_RAND_LEN 
+++
 INPUT_LEN  Valid.INPUT_LEN 
+++
 OUTPUT_LEN  Valid.OUTPUT_LEN 
+++
 PROOF_LEN  Valid.proof_len() (see Section 7.3.2) 
+++
 VERIFIER_LEN  Valid.verifier_len() (see Section 7.3.2) 
+++
 Measurement  Valid.Measurement 
+++
 Field  Valid.Field 
+++
Table 9: FLP Parameters of FlpGeneric.
7.3.3.1. Proof Generation
On input inp, prove_rand, and joint_rand, the proof is computed as
follows:
1. For each i in [H] create an empty table wire_i.
2. Partition the prover randomness prove_rand into subvectors
seed_1, ..., seed_H where len(seed_i) == L_i for all i in [H].
Let us call these the "wire seeds" of each gadget.
3. Evaluate Valid on input of inp and joint_rand, recording the
inputs of each gadget in the corresponding table. Specifically,
for every i in [H], set wire_i[j1,k1] to the value on the jth
wire into the kth call to gadget G_i.
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4. Compute the "wire polynomials". That is, for every i in [H] and
j in [L_i], construct poly_wire_i[j1], the jth wire polynomial
for the ith gadget, as follows:
* Let w = [seed_i[j1], wire_i[j1,0], ..., wire_i[j1,M_i1]].
* Let padded_w = w + Field.zeros(P_i  len(w)).
NOTE We pad w to the nearest power of 2 so that we can use FFT
for interpolating the wire polynomials. Perhaps there is some
clever math for picking wire_inp in a way that avoids having
to pad.
* Let poly_wire_i[j1] be the lowest degree polynomial for which
poly_wire_i[j1](alpha_i^k) == padded_w[k] for all k in [P_i].
5. Compute the "gadget polynomials". That is, for every i in [H]:
* Let poly_gadget_i = G_i(poly_wire_i[0], ..., poly_wire_i[L_i
1]). That is, evaluate the circuit G_i on the wire
polynomials for the ith gadget. (Arithmetic is in the ring of
polynomials over Field.)
The proof is the vector proof = seed_1 + coeff_1 + ... + seed_H +
coeff_H, where coeff_i is the vector of coefficients of poly_gadget_i
for each i in [H].
7.3.3.2. Query Generation
On input of inp, proof, query_rand, and joint_rand, the verifier
message is generated as follows:
1. For every i in [H] create an empty table wire_i.
2. Partition proof into the subvectors seed_1, coeff_1, ..., seed_H,
coeff_H defined in Section 7.3.3.1.
3. Evaluate Valid on input of inp and joint_rand, recording the
inputs of each gadget in the corresponding table. This step is
similar to the prover's step (3.) except the verifier does not
evaluate the gadgets. Instead, it computes the output of the kth
call to G_i by evaluating poly_gadget_i(alpha_i^k). Let v denote
the output of the circuit evaluation.
4. Compute the wire polynomials just as in the prover's step (4.).
5. Compute the tests for wellformedness of the gadget polynomials.
That is, for every i in [H]:
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* Let t = query_rand[i]. Check if t^(P_i) == 1: If so, then
raise ERR_ABORT and halt. (This prevents the verifier from
inadvertently leaking a gadget output in the verifier
message.)
* Let y_i = poly_gadget_i(t).
* For each j in [0,L_i) let x_i[j1] = poly_wire_i[j1](t).
The verifier message is the vector verifier = [v] + x_1 + [y_1] + ...
+ x_H + [y_H].
7.3.3.3. Decision
On input of vector verifier, the verifier decides if the input is
valid as follows:
1. Parse verifier into v, x_1, y_1, ..., x_H, y_H as defined in
Section 7.3.3.2.
2. Check for wellformedness of the gadget polynomials. For every i
in [H]:
* Let z = G_i(x_i). That is, evaluate the circuit G_i on x_i
and set z to the output.
* If z != y_i, then return False and halt.
3. Return True if v == 0 and False otherwise.
7.3.3.4. Encoding
The FLP encoding and truncation methods invoke Valid.encode,
Valid.truncate, and Valid.decode in the natural way.
7.4. Instantiations
This section specifies instantiations of Prio3 for various
measurement types. Each uses FlpGeneric as the FLP (Section 7.3) and
is determined by a validity circuit (Section 7.3.2) and a PRG
(Section 6.2). Test vectors for each can be found in Appendix "Test
Vectors".
NOTE Reference implementations of each of these VDAFs can be found
in https://github.com/cfrg/draftirtfcfrgvdaf/blob/main/poc/
vdaf_prio3.sage.
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7.4.1. Prio3Aes128Count
Our first instance of Prio3 is for a simple counter: Each measurement
is either one or zero and the aggregate result is the sum of the
measurements.
This instance uses PrgAes128 (Section 6.2.1) as its PRG. Its
validity circuit, denoted Count, uses Field64 (Table 3) as its finite
field. Its gadget, denoted Mul, is the degree2, arity2 gadget
defined as
def Mul(x, y):
return x * y
The validity circuit is defined as
def Count(inp: Vec[Field64]):
return Mul(inp[0], inp[0])  inp[0]
The measurement is encoded and decoded as a singleton vector in the
natural way. The parameters for this circuit are summarized below.
+================+==========================+
 Parameter  Value 
+================+==========================+
 GADGETS  [Mul] 
+++
 GADGET_CALLS  [1] 
+++
 INPUT_LEN  1 
+++
 OUTPUT_LEN  1 
+++
 JOINT_RAND_LEN  0 
+++
 Measurement  Unsigned, in range [0,2) 
+++
 AggResult  Unsigned 
+++
 Field  Field64 (Table 3) 
+++
Table 10: Parameters of validity circuit
Count.
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7.4.2. Prio3Aes128Sum
The next instance of Prio3 supports summing of integers in a pre
determined range. Each measurement is an integer in range [0,
2^bits), where bits is an associated parameter.
This instance of Prio3 uses PrgAes128 (Section 6.2.1) as its PRG.
Its validity circuit, denoted Sum, uses Field128 (Table 4) as its
finite field. The measurement is encoded as a lengthbits vector of
field elements, where the lth element of the vector represents the
lth bit of the summand:
def encode(Sum, measurement: Integer):
if 0 > measurement or measurement >= 2^Sum.INPUT_LEN:
raise ERR_INPUT
encoded = []
for l in range(Sum.INPUT_LEN):
encoded.append(Sum.Field((measurement >> l) & 1))
return encoded
def truncate(Sum, inp):
decoded = Sum.Field(0)
for (l, b) in enumerate(inp):
w = Sum.Field(1 << l)
decoded += w * b
return [decoded]
def decode(Sum, output, _num_measurements):
return output[0].as_unsigned()
The validity circuit checks that the input consists of ones and
zeros. Its gadget, denoted Range2, is the degree2, arity1 gadget
defined as
def Range2(x):
return x^2  x
The validity circuit is defined as
def Sum(inp: Vec[Field128], joint_rand: Vec[Field128]):
out = Field128(0)
r = joint_rand[0]
for x in inp:
out += r * Range2(x)
r *= joint_rand[0]
return out
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+================+================================+
 Parameter  Value 
+================+================================+
 GADGETS  [Range2] 
+++
 GADGET_CALLS  [bits] 
+++
 INPUT_LEN  bits 
+++
 OUTPUT_LEN  1 
+++
 JOINT_RAND_LEN  1 
+++
 Measurement  Unsigned, in range [0, 2^bits) 
+++
 AggResult  Unsigned 
+++
 Field  Field128 (Table 4) 
+++
Table 11: Parameters of validity circuit Sum.
7.4.3. Prio3Aes128Histogram
This instance of Prio3 allows for estimating the distribution of the
measurements by computing a simple histogram. Each measurement is an
arbitrary integer and the aggregate result counts the number of
measurements that fall in a set of fixed buckets.
This instance of Prio3 uses PrgAes128 (Section 6.2.1) as its PRG.
Its validity circuit, denoted Histogram, uses Field128 (Table 4) as
its finite field. The measurement is encoded as a onehot vector
representing the bucket into which the measurement falls (let bucket
denote a sequence of monotonically increasing integers):
def encode(Histogram, measurement: Integer):
boundaries = buckets + [Infinity]
encoded = [Field128(0) for _ in range(len(boundaries))]
for i in range(len(boundaries)):
if measurement <= boundaries[i]:
encoded[i] = Field128(1)
return encoded
def truncate(Histogram, inp: Vec[Field128]):
return inp
def decode(Histogram, output: Vec[Field128], _num_measurements):
return [bucket_count.as_unsigned() for bucket_count in output]
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The validity circuit uses Range2 (see Section 7.4.2) as its single
gadget. It checks for onehotness in two steps, as follows:
def Histogram(inp: Vec[Field128],
joint_rand: Vec[Field128],
num_shares: Unsigned):
# Check that each bucket is one or zero.
range_check = Field128(0)
r = joint_rand[0]
for x in inp:
range_check += r * Range2(x)
r *= joint_rand[0]
# Check that the buckets sum to 1.
sum_check = Field128(1) * Field128(num_shares).inv()
for b in inp:
sum_check += b
out = joint_rand[1] * range_check + \
joint_rand[1]^2 * sum_check
return out
Note that this circuit depends on the number of shares into which the
input is sharded. This is provided to the FLP by Prio3.
+================+====================+
 Parameter  Value 
+================+====================+
 GADGETS  [Range2] 
+++
 GADGET_CALLS  [buckets + 1] 
+++
 INPUT_LEN  buckets + 1 
+++
 OUTPUT_LEN  buckets + 1 
+++
 JOINT_RAND_LEN  2 
+++
 Measurement  Integer 
+++
 AggResult  Vec[Unsigned] 
+++
 Field  Field128 (Table 4) 
+++
Table 12: Parameters of validity
circuit Histogram.
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8. Poplar1
NOTE This construction has not undergone significant security
analysis.
This section specifies Poplar1, a VDAF for the following task. Each
Client holds a string of length BITS and the Aggregators hold a set
of lbit strings, where l <= BITS. We will refer to the latter as
the set of "candidate prefixes". The Aggregators' goal is to count
how many inputs are prefixed by each candidate prefix.
This functionality is the core component of the Poplar protocol
[BBCGGI21]. At a high level, the protocol works as follows.
1. Each Client splits its input string into input shares and sends
one share to each Aggregator.
2. The Aggregators agree on an initial set of candidate prefixes,
say 0 and 1.
3. The Aggregators evaluate the VDAF on each set of input shares and
aggregate the recovered output shares. The aggregation parameter
is the set of candidate prefixes.
4. The Aggregators send their aggregate shares to the Collector, who
combines them to recover the counts of each candidate prefix.
5. Let H denote the set of prefixes that occurred at least t times.
If the prefixes all have length BITS, then H is the set of t
heavyhitters. Otherwise compute the next set of candidate
prefixes as follows. For each p in H, add add p  0 and p  1
to the set. Repeat step 3 with the new set of candidate
prefixes.
Poplar1 is constructed from an "Incremental Distributed Point
Function (IDPF)", a primitive described by [BBCGGI21] that
generalizes the notion of a Distributed Point Function (DPF) [GI14].
Briefly, a DPF is used to distribute the computation of a "point
function", a function that evaluates to zero on every input except at
a programmable "point". The computation is distributed in such a way
that no one party knows either the point or what it evaluates to.
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An IDPF generalizes this "point" to a path on a full binary tree from
the root to one of the leaves. It is evaluated on an "index"
representing a unique node of the tree. If the node is on the
programmed path, then function evaluates to to a nonzero value;
otherwise it evaluates to zero. This structure allows an IDPF to
provide the functionality required for the above protocol, while at
the same time ensuring the same degree of privacy as a DPF.
Poplar1 composes an IDPF with the "secure sketching" protocol of
[BBCGGI21]. This protocol ensures that evaluating a set of input
shares on a unique set of candidate prefixes results in shares of a
"onehot" vector, i.e., a vector that is zero everywhere except for
one element, which is equal to one.
The remainder of this section is structured as follows. IDPFs are
defined in Section 8.1; a concrete instantiation is given
Section 8.3. The Poplar1 VDAF is defined in Section 8.2 in terms of
a generic IDPF. Finally, a concrete instantiation of Poplar1 is
specified in Section 8.4; test vectors can be found in Appendix "Test
Vectors".
8.1. Incremental Distributed Point Functions (IDPFs)
An IDPF is defined over a domain of size 2^BITS, where BITS is
constant defined by the IDPF. Indexes into the IDPF tree are encoded
as integers in range [0, 2^BITS). The Client specifies an index
alpha and a vector of values beta, one for each "level" L in range
[0, BITS). The key generation algorithm generates one IDPF "key" for
each Aggregator. When evaluated at level L and index 0 <= prefix <
2^L, each IDPF key returns an additive share of beta[L] if prefix is
the Lbit prefix of alpha and shares of zero otherwise.
An index x is defined to be a prefix of another index y as follows.
Let LSB(x, N) denote the least significant N bits of positive integer
x. By definition, a positive integer 0 <= x < 2^L is said to be the
lengthL prefix of positive integer 0 <= y < 2^BITS if LSB(x, L) is
equal to the most significant L bits of LSB(y, BITS), For example, 6
(110 in binary) is the length3 prefix of 25 (11001), but 7 (111) is
not.
Each of the programmed points beta is a vector of elements of some
finite field. We distinguish two types of fields: One for inner
nodes (denoted Idpf.FieldInner), and one for leaf nodes
(Idpf.FieldLeaf). (Our instantiation of Poplar1 (Section 8.4) will
use a much larger field for leaf nodes than for inner nodes. This is
to ensure the IDPF is "extractable" as defined in [BBCGGI21],
Definition 1.)
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A concrete IDPF defines the types and constants enumerated in
Table 13. In the remainder we write Idpf.Vec as shorthand for the
type Union[Vec[Vec[Idpf.FieldInner]], Vec[Vec[Idpf.FieldLeaf]]].
(This type denotes either a vector of inner node field elements or
leaf node field elements.) The scheme is comprised of the following
algorithms:
* Idpf.gen(alpha: Unsigned, beta_inner: Vec[Vec[Idpf.FieldInner]],
beta_leaf: Vec[Idpf.FieldLeaf]) > (Bytes, Vec[Bytes]) is the
randomized IDPFkey generation algorithm. Its inputs are the
index alpha and the values beta. The value of alpha MUST be in
range [0, 2^BITS). The output is a public part that is sent to
all Aggregators and a vector of private IDPF keys, one for each
aggregator.
* Idpf.eval(agg_id: Unsigned, public_share: Bytes, key: Bytes,
level: Unsigned, prefixes: Vec[Unsigned]) > Idpf.Vec is the
deterministic, stateless IDPFkey evaluation algorithm run by each
Aggregator. Its inputs are the Aggregator's unique identifier,
the public share distributed to all of the Aggregators, the
Aggregator's IDPF key, the "level" at which to evaluate the IDPF,
and the sequence of candidate prefixes. It returns the share of
the value corresponding to each candidate prefix.
The output type depends on the value of level: If level <
Idpf.BITS1, the output is the value for an inner node, which has
type Vec[Vec[Idpf.FieldInner]]; otherwise, if level == Idpf.BITS
1, then the output is the value for a leaf node, which has type
Vec[Vec[Idpf.FieldLeaf]].
The value of level MUST be in range [0, BITS). The indexes in
prefixes MUST all be distinct and in range [0, 2^level).
Applications MUST ensure that the Aggregator's identifier is equal
to the integer in range [0, SHARES) that matches the index of key
in the sequence of IDPF keys output by the Client.
In addition, the following method is derived for each concrete Idpf:
def current_field(Idpf, level):
return Idpf.FieldInner if level < Idpf.BITS1 \
else Idpf.FieldLeaf
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Finally, an implementation note. The interface for IDPFs specified
here is stateless, in the sense that there is no state carried
between IDPF evaluations. This is to align the IDPF syntax with the
VDAF abstraction boundary, which does not include shared state across
across VDAF evaluations. In practice, of course, it will often be
beneficial to expose a stateful API for IDPFs and carry the state
across evaluations. See Section 8.3 for details.
+============+==================================================+
 Parameter  Description 
+============+==================================================+
 SHARES  Number of IDPF keys output by IDPFkey generator 
+++
 BITS  Length in bits of each input string 
+++
 VALUE_LEN  Number of field elements of each output value 
+++
 KEY_SIZE  Size in bytes of each IDPF key 
+++
 FieldInner  Implementation of Field (Section 6.1) used for 
  values of inner nodes 
+++
 FieldLeaf  Implementation of Field used for values of leaf 
  nodes 
+++
 Prg  Implementation of Prg (Section 6.2) 
+++
Table 13: Constants and types defined by a concrete IDPF.
8.2. Construction
This section specifies Poplar1, an implementation of the Vdaf
interface (Section 5). It is defined in terms of any Idpf
(Section 8.1) for which Idpf.SHARES == 2 and Idpf.VALUE_LEN == 2.
The associated constants and types required by the Vdaf interface are
defined in Table 14. The methods required for sharding, preparation,
aggregation, and unsharding are described in the remaining
subsections.
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+=================+==================================+
 Parameter  Value 
+=================+==================================+
 VERIFY_KEY_SIZE  Idpf.Prg.SEED_SIZE 
+++
 ROUNDS  2 
+++
 SHARES  2 
+++
 Measurement  Unsigned 
+++
 AggParam  Tuple[Unsigned, Vec[Unsigned]] 
+++
 Prep  Tuple[Bytes, Unsigned, Idpf.Vec] 
+++
 OutShare  Idpf.Vec 
+++
 AggResult  Vec[Unsigned] 
+++
Table 14: Associated parameters for the Poplar1 VDAF.
8.2.1. Client
The client's input is an IDPF index, denoted alpha. The programmed
IDPF values are pairs of field elements (1, k) where each k is chosen
at random. This random value is used as part of the secure sketching
protocol of [BBCGGI21], Appendix C.4. After evaluating their IDPF
key shares on a given sequence of candidate prefixes, the sketching
protocol is used by the Aggregators to verify that they hold shares
of a onehot vector. In addition, for each level of the tree, the
prover generates random elements a, b, and c and computes
A = 2*a + k
B = a^2 + b  k*a + c
and sends additive shares of a, b, c, A and B to the Aggregators.
Putting everything together, the inputdistribution algorithm is
defined as follows. Function encode_input_shares is defined in
Section 8.2.5.
def measurement_to_input_shares(Poplar1, measurement):
dst = VERSION + I2OSP(Poplar1.ID, 4)
prg = Poplar1.Idpf.Prg(
gen_rand(Poplar1.Idpf.Prg.SEED_SIZE), dst + byte(255))
# Construct the IDPF values for each level of the IDPF tree.
# Each "data" value is 1; in addition, the Client generates
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# a random "authenticator" value used by the Aggregators to
# compute the sketch during preparation. This sketch is used
# to verify the onehotness of their output shares.
beta_inner = [
[Poplar1.Idpf.FieldInner(1), k] \
for k in prg.next_vec(Poplar1.Idpf.FieldInner,
Poplar1.Idpf.BITS  1) ]
beta_leaf = [Poplar1.Idpf.FieldLeaf(1)] + \
prg.next_vec(Poplar1.Idpf.FieldLeaf, 1)
# Generate the IDPF keys.
(public_share, keys) = \
Poplar1.Idpf.gen(measurement, beta_inner, beta_leaf)
# Generate correlated randomness used by the Aggregators to
# compute a sketch over their output shares. PRG seeds are
# used to encode shares of the `(a, b, c)` triples.
# (See [BBCGGI21, Appendix C.4].)
corr_seed = [
gen_rand(Poplar1.Idpf.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
gen_rand(Poplar1.Idpf.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
]
corr_prg = [
Poplar1.Idpf.Prg(corr_seed[0], dst + byte(0)),
Poplar1.Idpf.Prg(corr_seed[1], dst + byte(1)),
]
# For each level of the IDPF tree, shares of the `(A, B)`
# pairs are computed from the corresponding `(a, b, c)`
# triple and authenticator value `k`.
corr_inner = [[], []]
for level in range(Poplar1.Idpf.BITS):
Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(level)
k = beta_inner[level][1] if level < Poplar1.Idpf.BITS  1 \
else beta_leaf[1]
(a, b, c) = vec_add(corr_prg[0].next_vec(Field, 3),
corr_prg[1].next_vec(Field, 3))
A = Field(2) * a + k
B = a^2 + b  a * k + c
corr1 = prg.next_vec(Field, 2)
corr0 = vec_sub([A, B], corr1)
if level < Poplar1.Idpf.BITS  1:
corr_inner[0] += corr0
corr_inner[1] += corr1
else:
corr_leaf = [corr0, corr1]
# Each input share consists of the Aggregator's IDPF key
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# and a share of the correlated randomness.
return (public_share,
Poplar1.encode_input_shares(
keys, corr_seed, corr_inner, corr_leaf))
Figure 19: The inputdistribution algorithm for Poplar1.
8.2.2. Preparation
The aggregation parameter encodes a sequence of candidate prefixes.
When an Aggregator receives an input share from the Client, it begins
by evaluating its IDPF share on each candidate prefix, recovering a
data_share and auth_share for each. The Aggregators use these and
the correlation shares provided by the Client to verify that the
sequence of data_share values are additive shares of a onehot
vector.
The algorithms below make use of auxiliary functions verify_context()
and decode_input_share() defined in Section 8.2.5.
def prep_init(Poplar1, verify_key, agg_id, agg_param,
nonce, public_share, input_share):
dst = VERSION + I2OSP(Poplar1.ID, 4)
(level, prefixes) = agg_param
(key, corr_seed, corr_inner, corr_leaf) = \
Poplar1.decode_input_share(input_share)
# Evaluate the IDPF key at the given set of prefixes.
value = Poplar1.Idpf.eval(
agg_id, public_share, key, level, prefixes)
# Get correlation shares for the given level of the IDPF tree.
#
# Implementation note: Computing the shares of `(a, b, c)`
# requires expanding PRG seeds into a vector of field elements
# of length proportional to the level of the tree. Typically
# the IDPF will be evaluated incrementally beginning with
# `level == 0`. Implementations can save computation by
# storing the intermediate PRG state between evaluations.
corr_prg = Poplar1.Idpf.Prg(corr_seed, dst + byte(agg_id))
for current_level in range(level+1):
Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(current_level)
(a_share, b_share, c_share) = corr_prg.next_vec(Field, 3)
(A_share, B_share) = corr_inner[2*level:2*(level+1)] \
if level < Poplar1.Idpf.BITS  1 else corr_leaf
# Compute the Aggregator's first round of the sketch. These are
# called the "masked input values" [BBCGGI21, Appendix C.4].
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Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(level)
verify_rand_prg = Poplar1.Idpf.Prg(verify_key,
dst + Poplar1.verify_context(nonce, level, prefixes))
verify_rand = verify_rand_prg.next_vec(Field, len(prefixes))
sketch_share = [a_share, b_share, c_share]
out_share = []
for (i, r) in enumerate(verify_rand):
(data_share, auth_share) = value[i]
sketch_share[0] += data_share * r
sketch_share[1] += data_share * r^2
sketch_share[2] += auth_share * r
out_share.append(data_share)
prep_mem = sketch_share \
+ [A_share, B_share, Field(agg_id)] \
+ out_share
return (b'ready', level, prep_mem)
def prep_next(Poplar1, prep_state, opt_sketch):
(step, level, prep_mem) = prep_state
Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(level)
# Aggregators exchange masked input values (step (3.)
# of [BBCGGI21, Appendix C.4]).
if step == b'ready' and opt_sketch == None:
sketch_share, prep_mem = prep_mem[:3], prep_mem[3:]
return ((b'sketch round 1', level, prep_mem),
Field.encode_vec(sketch_share))
# Aggregators exchange evaluated shares (step (4.)).
elif step == b'sketch round 1' and opt_sketch != None:
prev_sketch = Field.decode_vec(opt_sketch)
if len(prev_sketch) == 0:
prev_sketch = Field.zeros(3)
elif len(prev_sketch) != 3:
raise ERR_INPUT # prep message malformed
(A_share, B_share, agg_id), prep_mem = \
prep_mem[:3], prep_mem[3:]
sketch_share = [
agg_id * (prev_sketch[0]^2 \
 prev_sketch[1]
 prev_sketch[2]) \
+ A_share * prev_sketch[0] \
+ B_share
]
return ((b'sketch round 2', level, prep_mem),
Field.encode_vec(sketch_share))
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elif step == b'sketch round 2' and opt_sketch != None:
prev_sketch = Field.decode_vec(opt_sketch)
if len(prev_sketch) == 0:
prev_sketch = Field.zeros(1)
elif len(prev_sketch) != 1:
raise ERR_INPUT # prep message malformed
if prev_sketch[0] != Field(0):
raise ERR_VERIFY
return prep_mem # Output shares
raise ERR_INPUT # unexpected input
def prep_shares_to_prep(Poplar1, agg_param, prep_shares):
if len(prep_shares) != 2:
raise ERR_INPUT # unexpected number of prep shares
(level, _) = agg_param
Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(level)
sketch = vec_add(Field.decode_vec(prep_shares[0]),
Field.decode_vec(prep_shares[1]))
if sketch == Field.zeros(len(sketch)):
# In order to reduce communication overhead, let the
# empty string denote the zero vector of the required
# length.
return b''
return Field.encode_vec(sketch)
Figure 20: Preparation state for Poplar1.
8.2.3. Aggregation
Aggregation involves simply adding up the output shares.
def out_shares_to_agg_share(Poplar1, agg_param, out_shares):
(level, prefixes) = agg_param
Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(level)
agg_share = Field.zeros(len(prefixes))
for out_share in out_shares:
agg_share = vec_add(agg_share, out_share)
return Field.encode_vec(agg_share)
Figure 21: Aggregation algorithm for Poplar1.
8.2.4. Unsharding
Finally, the Collector unshards the aggregate result by adding up the
aggregate shares.
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def agg_shares_to_result(Poplar1, agg_param,
agg_shares, _num_measurements):
(level, prefixes) = agg_param
Field = Poplar1.Idpf.current_field(level)
agg = Field.zeros(len(prefixes))
for agg_share in agg_shares:
agg = vec_add(agg, Field.decode_vec(agg_share))
return list(map(lambda x: x.as_unsigned(), agg))
Figure 22: Computation of the aggregate result for Poplar1.
8.2.5. Auxiliary Functions
def encode_input_shares(Poplar1, keys,
corr_seed, corr_inner, corr_leaf):
input_shares = []
for (key, seed, inner, leaf) in zip(keys,
corr_seed,
corr_inner,
corr_leaf):
encoded = Bytes()
encoded += key
encoded += seed
encoded += Poplar1.Idpf.FieldInner.encode_vec(inner)
encoded += Poplar1.Idpf.FieldLeaf.encode_vec(leaf)
input_shares.append(encoded)
return input_shares
def decode_input_share(Poplar1, encoded):
l = Poplar1.Idpf.KEY_SIZE
key, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
l = Poplar1.Idpf.Prg.SEED_SIZE
corr_seed, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
l = Poplar1.Idpf.FieldInner.ENCODED_SIZE \
* 2 * (Poplar1.Idpf.BITS  1)
encoded_corr_inner, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
corr_inner = Poplar1.Idpf.FieldInner.decode_vec(
encoded_corr_inner)
l = Poplar1.Idpf.FieldLeaf.ENCODED_SIZE * 2
encoded_corr_leaf, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
corr_leaf = Poplar1.Idpf.FieldLeaf.decode_vec(
encoded_corr_leaf)
if len(encoded) != 0:
raise ERR_INPUT
return (key, corr_seed, corr_inner, corr_leaf)
def encode_agg_param(Poplar1, level, prefixes):
if level > 2^16  1:
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raise ERR_INPUT # level too deep
if len(prefixes) > 2^16  1:
raise ERR_INPUT # too many prefixes
encoded = Bytes()
encoded += I2OSP(level, 2)
encoded += I2OSP(len(prefixes), 2)
packed = 0
for (i, prefix) in enumerate(prefixes):
packed = prefix << ((level+1) * i)
l = floor(((level+1) * len(prefixes) + 7) / 8)
encoded += I2OSP(packed, l)
return encoded
def verify_context(Poplar1, nonce, level, prefixes):
if len(nonce) > 255:
raise ERR_INPUT # nonce too long
context = Bytes()
context += byte(254)
context += byte(len(nonce))
context += nonce
context += Poplar1.encode_agg_param(level, prefixes)
return context
Figure 23: Helper functions for Poplar1.
8.3. The IDPF scheme of [BBCGGI21]
In this section we specify a concrete IDPF, called IdpfPoplar,
suitable for instantiating Poplar1. The scheme gets its name from
the name of the protocol of [BBCGGI21].
TODO We should consider giving IdpfPoplar a more distinctive name.
The constant and type definitions required by the Idpf interface are
given in Table 15.
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+============+=========================================+
 Parameter  Value 
+============+=========================================+
 SHARES  2 
+++
 BITS  any positive integer 
+++
 VALUE_LEN  any positive integer 
+++
 KEY_SIZE  Prg.SEED_SIZE 
+++
 FieldInner  Field64 (Table 3) 
+++
 FieldLeaf  Field255 (Table 5) 
+++
 Prg  any implementation of Prg (Section 6.2) 
+++
Table 15: Constants and type definitions for IdpfPoplar.
8.3.1. Key Generation
TODO Describe the construction in prose, beginning with a gentle
introduction to the high level idea.
The description of the IDPFkey generation algorithm makes use of
auxiliary functions extend(), convert(), and encode_public_share()
defined in Section 8.3.3. In the following, we let Field2 denote the
field GF(2).
def gen(IdpfPoplar, alpha, beta_inner, beta_leaf):
if alpha >= 2^IdpfPoplar.BITS:
raise ERR_INPUT # alpha too long
if len(beta_inner) != IdpfPoplar.BITS  1:
raise ERR_INPUT # beta_inner vector is the wrong size
init_seed = [
gen_rand(IdpfPoplar.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
gen_rand(IdpfPoplar.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
]
seed = init_seed.copy()
ctrl = [Field2(0), Field2(1)]
correction_words = []
for level in range(IdpfPoplar.BITS):
keep = (alpha >> (IdpfPoplar.BITS  level  1)) & 1
lose = 1  keep
bit = Field2(keep)
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(s0, t0) = IdpfPoplar.extend(seed[0])
(s1, t1) = IdpfPoplar.extend(seed[1])
seed_cw = xor(s0[lose], s1[lose])
ctrl_cw = (
t0[0] + t1[0] + bit + Field2(1),
t0[1] + t1[1] + bit,
)
x0 = xor(s0[keep], seed_cw) if ctrl[0] == Field2(1) \
else s0[keep]
x1 = xor(s1[keep], seed_cw) if ctrl[1] == Field2(1) \
else s1[keep]
(seed[0], w0) = IdpfPoplar.convert(level, x0)
(seed[1], w1) = IdpfPoplar.convert(level, x1)
ctrl[0] = t0[keep] + ctrl[0] * ctrl_cw[keep]
ctrl[1] = t1[keep] + ctrl[1] * ctrl_cw[keep]
b = beta_inner[level] if level < IdpfPoplar.BITS1 \
else beta_leaf
if len(b) != IdpfPoplar.VALUE_LEN:
raise ERR_INPUT # beta too long or too short
w_cw = vec_add(vec_sub(b, w0), w1)
if ctrl[1] == Field2(1):
w_cw = vec_neg(w_cw)
correction_words.append((seed_cw, ctrl_cw, w_cw))
public_share = IdpfPoplar.encode_public_share(correction_words)
return (public_share, init_seed)
Figure 24: IDPFkey generation algorithm of IdpfPoplar.
8.3.2. Key Evaluation
TODO Describe in prose how IDPFkey evaluation algorithm works.
The description of the IDPFevaluation algorithm makes use of
auxiliary functions extend(), convert(), and decode_public_share()
defined in Section 8.3.3.
def eval(IdpfPoplar, agg_id, public_share, init_seed,
level, prefixes):
if agg_id >= IdpfPoplar.SHARES:
raise ERR_INPUT # invalid aggregator ID
if level >= IdpfPoplar.BITS:
raise ERR_INPUT # level too deep
if len(set(prefixes)) != len(prefixes):
raise ERR_INPUT # candidate prefixes are nonunique
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correction_words = IdpfPoplar.decode_public_share(public_share)
out_share = []
for prefix in prefixes:
if prefix >= 2^(level+1):
raise ERR_INPUT # prefix too long
# The Aggregator's output share is the value of a node of
# the IDPF tree at the given `level`. The node's value is
# computed by traversing the path defined by the candidate
# `prefix`. Each node in the tree is represented by a seed
# (`seed`) and a set of control bits (`ctrl`).
seed = init_seed
ctrl = Field2(agg_id)
for current_level in range(level+1):
bit = (prefix >> (level  current_level)) & 1
# Implementation note: Typically the current round of
# candidate prefixes would have been derived from
# aggregate results computed during previous rounds. For
# example, when using `IdpfPoplar` to compute heavy
# hitters, a string whose hit count exceeded the given
# threshold in the last round would be the prefix of each
# `prefix` in the current round. (See [BBCGGI21,
# Section 5.1].) In this case, part of the path would
# have already been traversed.
#
# Recomputing nodes along previously traversed paths is
# wasteful. Implementations can eliminate this added
# complexity by caching nodes (i.e., `(seed, ctrl)`
# pairs) output by previous calls to `eval_next()`.
(seed, ctrl, y) = IdpfPoplar.eval_next(seed, ctrl,
correction_words[current_level], current_level, bit)
out_share.append(y if agg_id == 0 else vec_neg(y))
return out_share
# Compute the next node in the IDPF tree along the path determined by
# a candidate prefix. The next node is determined by `bit`, the bit
# of the prefix corresponding to the next level of the tree.
#
# TODO Consider implementing some version of the optimization
# discussed at the end of [BBCGGI21, Appendix C.2]. This could on
# average reduce the number of AES calls by a constant factor.
def eval_next(IdpfPoplar, prev_seed, prev_ctrl,
correction_word, level, bit):
(seed_cw, ctrl_cw, w_cw) = correction_word
(s, t) = IdpfPoplar.extend(prev_seed)
if prev_ctrl == Field2(1):
s[0] = xor(s[0], seed_cw)
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s[1] = xor(s[1], seed_cw)
t[0] = t[0] + ctrl_cw[0]
t[1] = t[1] + ctrl_cw[1]
next_ctrl = t[bit]
(next_seed, y) = IdpfPoplar.convert(level, s[bit])
if next_ctrl == Field2(1):
y = vec_add(y, w_cw)
return (next_seed, next_ctrl, y)
Figure 25: IDPFevaluation generation algorithm of IdpfPoplar.
8.3.3. Auxiliary Functions
def extend(IdpfPoplar, seed):
dst = VERSION + b' idpf poplar extend'
prg = IdpfPoplar.Prg(seed, dst)
s = [
prg.next(IdpfPoplar.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
prg.next(IdpfPoplar.Prg.SEED_SIZE),
]
b = OS2IP(prg.next(1))
t = [Field2(b & 1), Field2((b >> 1) & 1)]
return (s, t)
def convert(IdpfPoplar, level, seed):
dst = VERSION + b' idpf poplar convert'
prg = IdpfPoplar.Prg(seed, dst)
next_seed = prg.next(IdpfPoplar.Prg.SEED_SIZE)
Field = IdpfPoplar.current_field(level)
w = prg.next_vec(Field, IdpfPoplar.VALUE_LEN)
return (next_seed, w)
def encode_public_share(IdpfPoplar, correction_words):
encoded = Bytes()
packed_ctrl = 0
for (level, (_, ctrl_cw, _)) \
in enumerate(correction_words):
packed_ctrl = ctrl_cw[0].as_unsigned() << (2*level)
packed_ctrl = ctrl_cw[1].as_unsigned() << (2*level+1)
l = floor((2*IdpfPoplar.BITS + 7) / 8)
encoded += I2OSP(packed_ctrl, l)
for (level, (seed_cw, _, w_cw)) \
in enumerate(correction_words):
Field = IdpfPoplar.current_field(level)
encoded += seed_cw
encoded += Field.encode_vec(w_cw)
return encoded
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def decode_public_share(IdpfPoplar, encoded):
l = floor((2*IdpfPoplar.BITS + 7) / 8)
encoded_ctrl, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
packed_ctrl = OS2IP(encoded_ctrl)
correction_words = []
for level in range(IdpfPoplar.BITS):
Field = IdpfPoplar.current_field(level)
ctrl_cw = (Field2(packed_ctrl & 1),
Field2((packed_ctrl >> 1) & 1))
packed_ctrl >>= 2
l = IdpfPoplar.Prg.SEED_SIZE
seed_cw, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
l = Field.ENCODED_SIZE * IdpfPoplar.VALUE_LEN
encoded_w_cw, encoded = encoded[:l], encoded[l:]
w_cw = Field.decode_vec(encoded_w_cw)
correction_words.append((seed_cw, ctrl_cw, w_cw))
if len(encoded) != 0:
raise ERR_DECODE
return correction_words
Figure 26: Helper functions for IdpfPoplar.
8.4. Poplar1Aes128
We refer to Poplar1 instantiated with IdpfPoplar (VALUE_LEN == 2) and
PrgAes128 (Section 6.2.1) as Poplar1Aes128. This VDAF is suitable
for any positive value of BITS. Test vectors can be found in
Appendix "Test Vectors".
9. Security Considerations
NOTE: This is a brief outline of the security considerations.
This section will be filled out more as the draft matures and
security analyses are completed.
VDAFs have two essential security goals:
1. Privacy: An attacker that controls the network, the Collector,
and a subset of Clients and Aggregators learns nothing about the
measurements of honest Clients beyond what it can deduce from the
aggregate result.
2. Robustness: An attacker that controls the network and a subset of
Clients cannot cause the Collector to compute anything other than
the aggregate of the measurements of honest Clients.
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Note that, to achieve robustness, it is important to ensure that the
verification key distributed to the Aggregators (verify_key, see
Section 5.2) is never revealed to the Clients.
It is also possible to consider a stronger form of robustness, where
the attacker also controls a subset of Aggregators (see [BBCGGI19],
Section 6.3). To satisfy this stronger notion of robustness, it is
necessary to prevent the attacker from sharing the verification key
with the Clients. It is therefore RECOMMENDED that the Aggregators
generate verify_key only after a set of Client inputs has been
collected for verification, and regenerate them for each such set of
inputs.
In order to achieve robustness, the Aggregators MUST ensure that the
nonces used to process the measurements in a batch are all unique.
A VDAF is the core cryptographic primitive of a protocol that
achieves the above privacy and robustness goals. It is not
sufficient on its own, however. The application will need to assure
a few security properties, for example:
* Securely distributing the longlived parameters.
* Establishing secure channels:
 Confidential and authentic channels among Aggregators, and
between the Aggregators and the Collector; and
 Confidential and Aggregatorauthenticated channels between
Clients and Aggregators.
* Enforcing the noncollusion properties required of the specific
VDAF in use.
In such an environment, a VDAF provides the highlevel privacy
property described above: The Collector learns only the aggregate
measurement, and nothing about individual measurements aside from
what can be inferred from the aggregate result. The Aggregators
learn neither individual measurements nor the aggregate result. The
Collector is assured that the aggregate statistic accurately reflects
the inputs as long as the Aggregators correctly executed their role
in the VDAF.
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On their own, VDAFs do not mitigate Sybil attacks [Dou02]. In this
attack, the adversary observes a subset of input shares transmitted
by a Client it is interested in. It allows the input shares to be
processed, but corrupts and picks bogus inputs for the remaining
Clients. Applications can guard against these risks by adding
additional controls on measurement submission, such as client
authentication and rate limits.
VDAFs do not inherently provide differential privacy [Dwo06]. The
VDAF approach to private measurement can be viewed as complementary
to differential privacy, relying on noncollusion instead of
statistical noise to protect the privacy of the inputs. It is
possible that a future VDAF could incorporate differential privacy
features, e.g., by injecting noise before the sharding stage and
removing it after unsharding.
10. IANA Considerations
A codepoint for each (V)DAF in this document is defined in the table
below. Note that 0xFFFF0000 through 0xFFFFFFFF are reserved for
private use.
+===============+======================+======+===============+
 Value  Scheme  Type  Reference 
+===============+======================+======+===============+
 0x00000000  Prio3Aes128Count  VDAF  Section 7.4.1 
+++++
 0x00000001  Prio3Aes128Sum  VDAF  Section 7.4.2 
+++++
 0x00000002  Prio3Aes128Histogram  VDAF  Section 7.4.3 
+++++
 0x00000003 to  reserved for Prio3  VDAF  n/a 
 0x00000FFF    
+++++
 0x00001000  Poplar1Aes128  VDAF  Section 8.4 
+++++
 0xFFFF0000 to  reserved  n/a  n/a 
 0xFFFFFFFF    
+++++
Table 16: Unique identifiers for (V)DAFs.
TODO Add IANA considerations for the codepoints summarized in
Table 16.
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OPEN ISSUE Currently the scheme includes the PRG. This means that
we need bits of the codepoint to differentiate between PRGs. We
could instead make the PRG generic (e.g., Prio3Count(Aes128)
instead of Prio3Aes128Count) and define a separate codepoint.
11. References
11.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
.
[RFC4493] Song, JH., Poovendran, R., Lee, J., and T. Iwata, "The
AESCMAC Algorithm", RFC 4493, DOI 10.17487/RFC4493, June
2006, .
[RFC8017] Moriarty, K., Ed., Kaliski, B., Jonsson, J., and A. Rusch,
"PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.2",
RFC 8017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8017, November 2016,
.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, .
11.2. Informative References
[AGJOP21] Addanki, S., Garbe, K., Jaffe, E., Ostrovsky, R., and A.
Polychroniadou, "Prio+: Privacy Preserving Aggregate
Statistics via Boolean Shares", 2021,
.
[BBCGGI19] Boneh, D., Boyle, E., CorriganGibbs, H., Gilboa, N., and
Y. Ishai, "ZeroKnowledge Proofs on SecretShared Data via
Fully Linear PCPs", CRYPTO 2019 , 2019,
.
[BBCGGI21] Boneh, D., Boyle, E., CorriganGibbs, H., Gilboa, N., and
Y. Ishai, "Lightweight Techniques for Private Heavy
Hitters", IEEE S&P 2021 , 2021, .
[CGB17] CorriganGibbs, H. and D. Boneh, "Prio: Private, Robust,
and Scalable Computation of Aggregate Statistics", NSDI
2017 , 2017,
.
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[DAP] Geoghegan, T., Patton, C., Rescorla, E., and C. A. Wood,
"Distributed Aggregation Protocol for Privacy Preserving
Measurement", Work in Progress, InternetDraft, draft
ietfppmdap01, 11 July 2022,
.
[Dou02] Douceur, J., "The Sybil Attack", IPTPS 2002 , 2002,
.
[Dwo06] Dwork, C., "Differential Privacy", ICALP 2006 , 2006,
.
[ENPA] "Exposure Notification Privacypreserving Analytics (ENPA)
White Paper", 2021, .
[EPK14] Erlingsson, Ú., Pihur, V., and A. Korolova, "RAPPOR:
Randomized Aggregatable PrivacyPreserving Ordinal
Response", CCS 2014 , 2014,
.
[GI14] Gilboa, N. and Y. Ishai, "Distributed Point Functions and
Their Applications", EUROCRYPT 2014 , 2014,
.
[OriginTelemetry]
"Origin Telemetry", 2020, .
Acknowledgments
Thanks to David Cook, Henry CorriganGibbs, Armando FazHernandez,
Simon Friedberger, Tim Geoghegan, Mariana Raykova, Jacob Rothstein,
and Christopher Wood for useful feedback on and contributions to the
spec.
Test Vectors
NOTE Machinereadable test vectors can be found at
https://github.com/cfrg/draftirtfcfrgvdaf/tree/main/poc/
test_vec.
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Test vectors cover the generation of input shares and the conversion
of input shares into output shares. Vectors specify the verification
key, measurements, aggregation parameter, and any parameters needed
to construct the VDAF. (For example, for Prio3Aes128Sum, the user
specifies the number of bits for representing each summand.)
Byte strings are encoded in hexadecimal To make the tests
deterministic, gen_rand() was replaced with a function that returns
the requested number of 0x01 octets.
Prio3Aes128Count
verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
upload_0:
measurement: 1
nonce: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
public_share: >
input_share_0: >
ad8bb894e3222b47b70eb67d4f70cb78644826d67d31129e422b910cf0aab70c0b78
fa57b4a7b3aaafae57bd1012e813
input_share_1: >
0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
38d535dd68f3c02ed6681f7ff24239d46fde93c8402d24ebbafa25c77ca3535d
prep_share_1: >
c72aca21970c3fd35274476a1cddd4bb4efa24ee0d71473e4a0a23713a347d78
prep_message: >
out_share_0:
 12505291739929652039
out_share_1:
 5941452329484932283
agg_share_0: >
ad8bb894e3222b47
agg_share_1: >
5274476a1cddd4bb
agg_result: 1
Prio3Aes128Sum
bits: 8
verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
upload_0:
measurement: 100
nonce: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
public_share: >
input_share_0: >
fc1e42a024e3d8b45f63f485ebe2dc8a356c5e5780a0bd751184e6a02a96c0767f51
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8e87282ebdc039590aef02e40e5492c9eb69dd22b6b4f1d630e7ca8612b7a7e090b3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input_share_1: >
01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
0101010101010101010101010101094240ceae2d63ba1bdda997fa0bcbd8
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
0a85b5e51cacf514ee9e9bbe5d3ac023795e910b765411e5cea8ff187973640694
bd740cc15bc9cad60bc85785206062094240ceae2d63ba1bdda997fa0bcbd8
prep_share_1: >
f57a4a1ae3530acf11616441a2c53fde804d262dc42e15e556ee02c588c3ca9d92
4eefa735a95f6e420f2c5161706e025f0721f50826593dc3908dad39353846
prep_message: >
60af733578d766f2305c1d53c840b4b5
out_share_0:
 227608477929192160221239678567201956832
out_share_1:
 112673888991746302725626094800698809477
agg_share_0: >
ab3bcc5ef693737a7a3e76cd9face3e0
agg_share_1: >
54c433a1096c8c6985c1893260531c85
agg_result: 100
Prio3Aes128Histogram
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buckets: [1, 10, 100]
verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
upload_0:
measurement: 50
nonce: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
public_share: >
input_share_0: >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input_share_1: >
01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101
01010101010101010101010101016195ec204fd5d65c14fac36b73723cde
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
f2dc9e823b867d760b2169644633804eabec10e5869fe8f3030c5da6dc0fce03a4
33572cb8aaa7ca3559959f7bad68306195ec204fd5d65c14fac36b73723cde
prep_share_1: >
0d23617dc479826df4de969bb9cc7fb3f5e934542e987db0271aee33551b28a4c1
6f7ad00127c43df9c433a1c224594d94c3f0f1061c8f440b51f806ad822510
prep_message: >
7912f1157c2ce3a4dca6456224aeaeea
out_share_0:
 316441748434879643753815489063091297628
 208470253761472213750543248431791209107
 245951175238245845331446316072865931791
 133415875449384174923011884997795018199
out_share_1:
 23840618486058819193050284304809468581
 131812113159466249196322524936109557102
 94331191682692617615419457295034834419
 206866491471554288023853888370105748010
agg_share_0: >
ee1076c1ebc2d48a557a71031bc9dd5c9cd5e91180bbb51f4ac366946bcbfa93b90879
2bd15d402f4ac8da264e24a20f645ef68472180c5894bac704ae0675d7
agg_share_1: >
11ef893e143d2b59aa858efce43622a5632a16ee7f444ac4b53c996b9434056e46f786
d42ea2bfb4b53725d9b1db5df39ba1097b8de7f38b6b4538fb51f98a2a
agg_result: [0, 0, 1, 0]
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Poplar1Aes128
Sharding
bits: 4
verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
agg_param: (0, [0, 1])
upload_0:
measurement: 13
nonce: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
public_share: >
9a000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001eb3a1bd6b5fa4a4500
000000000000000000000000000000ffffffff0000000022522c3fd5a33cac000000
00000000000000000000000000ffffffff0000000069f41eee46542b690000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000017d1fd6df94280145a0dcc933ceb706e9219d50e7c4f92fd8ca
9a0ffb7d819646
input_share_0: >
0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101c226
c4542c79eafa04ece4b493baadd00114dd7a8f91b9a25b767f43733c467d2cbb7fb5
fe9782d0a51919f2bc2b6aa57442f7b923b9a700c7ab7a6c0aaff428ee671e1ed22f
12dbb4714b53b11f3e0354cd5709f04c6bb9b0563499a7bd94c11d6d48c24ddc68a4
b6477c2847d8218a
input_share_1: >
01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010e6b
27437d25adc6b565aa093dcc0d27507481df2f19d80abebe750f4b0ab4b6eb20a7de
2aebb5f610e65647225d4a1851709e3b8c95c38eccf85ffebf320fae04f6826999af
0782036a9671411b0676717cc6a0b8fd87177836f1fd980d49e4ad23f31e83a99cea
313c614e7106ec80
Preparation, Aggregation, and Unsharding
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verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
agg_param: (0, [0, 1])
upload_0:
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
d15f37fd8d2de10c3eec340265f8bfaa6ea7b79536b4d12a
prep_share_1: >
7e02697276b506ca402eca93b7dcf770877dff591d6fd9c5
prep_message: >
4f61a17103e2e7d57f1afe961dd5b71af625b6ee5424aaef
round_1:
prep_share_0: >
cba373c9458c26ee
prep_share_1: >
345c8c35ba73d913
prep_message: >
out_share_0:
 18188801410092473065
 309938393258542164
out_share_1:
 257942659322111256
 18136805676156042158
agg_share_0: >
fc6b9a839aaf9ae9044d1f53986e4454
agg_share_1: >
0394657b65506518fbb2e0ab6791bbae
agg_result: [0, 1]
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verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
agg_param: (1, [0, 1, 2, 3])
upload_0:
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
9b0474605d77d4791a43cb86dc332a15b8b5f67496aa4b8d
prep_share_1: >
92b13576b734a956e93851d81193d503bae64c3cda971dfb
prep_message: >
2db5a9d814ac7dce037c1d5fedc6ff17739c42b271416987
round_1:
prep_share_0: >
aecb3ecaafff0dbe
prep_share_1: >
5134c1345000f243
prep_message: >
out_share_0:
 16639637265869957457
 1807457878431656707
 14875784335609201424
 8515527061577716649
out_share_1:
 1807106803544626864
 16639286190982927614
 3570959733805382897
 9931217007836867673
agg_share_0: >
e6ebddeec787e9511915615d36666b03ce716709b74e8310762d3abecc90d3a9
agg_share_1: >
19142210387816b0e6ea9ea1c99994fe318e98f548b17cf189d2c540336f2c59
agg_result: [0, 0, 0, 1]
Barnes, et al. Expires 25 February 2023 [Page 82]
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verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
agg_param: (2, [0, 2, 4, 6])
upload_0:
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
93df236f6e786bca97233e32224a1941f6dd3a9511e01acc
prep_share_1: >
2ab413234f2bec549b6546e4d96fee4bad6957e433768506
prep_message: >
be933692bda4581e32888517fbba078ba446927a45569fd1
round_1:
prep_share_0: >
c36e1270495f5aa6
prep_share_1: >
3c91ed8eb6a0a55b
prep_message: >
out_share_0:
 3024081010823632913
 6306522542811675542
 2996392641000911092
 7890625214403888205
out_share_1:
 15422663058590951408
 12140221526602908779
 15450351428413673229
 10556118855010696117
agg_share_0: >
29f7b1a836259811578544d6dc487b962995533b3e7430f46d8121d38048c44d
agg_share_1: >
d6084e56c9da67f0a87abb2823b7846bd66aacc3c18bcf0d927ede2b7fb73bb5
agg_result: [0, 0, 0, 1]
verify_key: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
agg_param: (3, [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 15])
upload_0:
upload_0:
measurement: 13
nonce: "01010101010101010101010101010101"
public_share: >
9a000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001eb3a1bd6b5fa4a4500
000000000000000000000000000000ffffffff0000000022522c3fd5a33cac000000
00000000000000000000000000ffffffff0000000069f41eee46542b690000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000017d1fd6df94280145a0dcc933ceb706e9219d50e7c4f92fd8ca
9a0ffb7d819646
input_share_0: >
0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101c226
c4542c79eafa04ece4b493baadd00114dd7a8f91b9a25b767f43733c467d2cbb7fb5
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fe9782d0a51919f2bc2b6aa57442f7b923b9a700c7ab7a6c0aaff428ee671e1ed22f
12dbb4714b53b11f3e0354cd5709f04c6bb9b0563499a7bd94c11d6d48c24ddc68a4
b6477c2847d8218a
input_share_1: >
01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010e6b
27437d25adc6b565aa093dcc0d27507481df2f19d80abebe750f4b0ab4b6eb20a7de
2aebb5f610e65647225d4a1851709e3b8c95c38eccf85ffebf320fae04f6826999af
0782036a9671411b0676717cc6a0b8fd87177836f1fd980d49e4ad23f31e83a99cea
313c614e7106ec80
round_0:
prep_share_0: >
0940b06b287f0232397df2414c00cd0ccfb08f955bf4089651f019458cd7da2204
c997d78134341745669b19da58cbef280f712d12900475ac2c4de486e9870774ba
3c9d024245e7866528e37b9a931e61b794ab12a4bf74b41de50cec5f1214
prep_share_1: >
605b876c915cb4b2d94c5999ab0642e81eefe4b06ac936b2cd9608ffeb9a6c8a45
a9faa5b4940cdc375043075990f115770cbb762f2baf1bf9024c36685cf3051607
a3331e036072b0202bb89be78d7ad8f8c07fbf2761884dcb4f414e966562
prep_message: >
699c37d7b9dbb6e512ca4bdaf7070ff4eea07445c6bd3f491f862245787246ac4a
73927d35c840f37cb6de2133e9bd049f1c2ca341bbb391a52e9a1aef467a0c0ac1
dfd02045a65a3685549c178220993ab0552ad1cc20fd01e9344e3af57789
round_1:
prep_share_0: >
69ac4b4219b647d08579ebc1d61e15a87684c817b8e9e2f599dec39dd42c60e0
prep_share_1: >
1653b4bde649b82f7a86143e29e1ea57897b37e847161d0a66213c622bd39f0d
prep_message: >
out_share_0:
 31266787981623073345438631450097917412029050287225674733758559830914037991840
 26393661814069127500656687560668964619575440551355825110935075749282733430112
 29174096716912605985872100661347047626133976434476959088535854022406688824676
 37302603208117590782775952507020589026342905631492315271787751917771005617295
 55309420117672678173715719521410144937198418175813304907316032334662803449360
 29174390317706805594521496894406843472816744180092642437922410411508000504883
 21223279146307403682071881696710510174726527474394063793607036387613816968277
out_share_1:
 26629256637035024366346861054246036514605942045594607285970232173042526828109
 31502382804588970211128804943674989307059551781464456908793716254673831389837
 28721947901745491725913391842996906300501015898343322931192937981549875995273
 20593441410540506929009539997323364900292086701327966747941040086185559202654
 2586624500985419538069772982933808989436574157006977112412759669293761370589
 28721654300951292117263995609937110453818248152727639581806381592448564315067
 36672765472350694029713610807633443751908464858426218226121755616342747851672
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Barnes, et al. Expires 25 February 2023 [Page 84]
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Authors' Addresses
Richard L. Barnes
Cisco
Email: rlb@ipv.sx
Christopher Patton
Cloudflare
Email: chrispatton+ietf@gmail.com
Phillipp Schoppmann
Google
Email: schoppmann@google.com
Barnes, et al. Expires 25 February 2023 [Page 85]